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This is an article 'Congress and the Africanists' by Walter Sisulu as it appears on pp27-34 of the journal 'Africa South', volume three, number four, July-September 1959. The article is quoted in chapter ten of Julie Frederikse's book 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa'. Included in SAHA's virtual exhibition 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa

'Reflections on Non-Racialism' is a paper delivered by Obenewa Amponsah, CEO of the Steve Biko Foundation as panellist at a panel discussion to consider the legacy of non-racialism in South Africa today. The South African History Archive (SAHA), in partnership with the Nelson Mandela Foundation, hosted the discussion and the launch of the 25th commemorative edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa on 22 September 1990 at Constitution Hill. The other panellists were Mr Neeshan Balton (CEO, Ahmed Kathrada Foundation), and Mr Sello Hatang (CEO, Nelson Mandela Foundation). Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This pamphlet 'Vukani - Awake' was published by the African National Congress (ANC) in support of the National Liberation Movement in July 1967. This pamphlet is quoted in chapter fourteen of Julie Frederikse's book, 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa', originally published by Ravan press in 1990. Included in SAHA's virtual exhibition 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa

This is a transcript of an interview with A.B. Ngcobo conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Ahmed Kathrada, anti-apartheid activist, on 7 July 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Arthur Chaskalson, former Justice of the Constitutional Court, on 25 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Baleka Mbete, ANC Chairperson, on 25 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Barbara Hogan, former Minister of Public Enterprises, on 21 July 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Cassim Coovadia, MD of Banking Association of South Africa, on 10 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Derek Hanekom, then Deputy Minister of Science and Technology, on 1 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Ela Gandhi, founder of the Gandhi Development Trust, on 16 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with F.W. de Klerk, former South African president, on 8 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Farid Esack, an Islamic theologian and writer and anti-apartheid activist, on 19 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Ferial Haffajee, editor of the City Press, on 3 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Firoz Cachalia, former MEC and Wits Law academic, on 8 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Frank Chikane, religious leader and former DG: Office of the President, on 18 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Gwede Mantashe, ANC general Secretary, on 4 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Helen Zille, then leader of the Democratic Alliance, on 1 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Ismail Vadi, MEC for Transport, Gauteng, on 15 July 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project.The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Jeremy Cronin, then Deputy Minister of Transport, on 18 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part one of the transcript of an interview conducted with Laloo Chiba, a former MP and member of the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC), on 14 July 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part two of the transcript of an interview conducted with Laloo Chiba, a former MP and member of the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC), on 14 July 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Magdalene Moonsamy, then ANC Youth League spokesperson, on 3 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Mondli Makhanya, Editor-in-Chief of Avusa newspapers, on 11 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Prema Naidoo, ANC Chief Whip, City of Johannesburg, on 22 July 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Sidumo Dlamini, COSATU president, on 19 July 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Sophie Williams-De Bruyn, ANC MP, on 13 July 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Thabo Mbeki, former South African president, on 28 September 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Trevor Ngwane, social movement activist, on 13 July 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Vishwas Satgar, co-founder of the Democratic Left Front, on 31 August 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is the transcript of an interview conducted with Zac Yacoob, Constitutional Court judge, on 11 July 2011 for the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's Leader's Project. The Leaders' Project forms part of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation's work around understanding contemporary meanings and interpretations on non-racialism in South Africa. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Father Albert Nolan conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Albie Sachs conducted by Julie Frederikse in November 1985 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Albie Sachs conducted by Julie Frederikse in November 1985 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Alec Erwin, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Alec Erwin was elected general-secretary of FOSATU in 1979, and education secretary in 1982. With the formation of COSATU in 1985 he was elected national education officer, and in 1988 he assumed that post in the National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa (NUMSA, formerly MAWU). He was named a COSATU representative on the ANC's Southern Natal convening committee in 1990. Born: 1948 in River Valley, Cape Town. Interviewed: 1985 in Durban. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Alf Karrim conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. elected to the NIC executive at its 1987 conference and is involved in rural development research at the Centre for Community Organizations, Research and Development at the University of Natal, Durban. Born: 1955 in Durban. Interviewed: 1985 in Durban. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Alfred Qabula conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 3 of 3 transcript of an interview with Amy Thornton conducted by Julie Frederikse in May 1985 in Cape Town for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Andrew Boraine, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Andrew Boraine was the President of the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) from 1980-1981. He was elected to the United Democratic Front (UDF) national executive in 1983, and in 1985 was co-opted onto the shadow Western Cape UDF executive after the entire new executive was detained under Emergency regulations. In 1986 he began conducting research into 'people's power' in street committees and in 1989 joined Planact, a service group which conducts research into urban issues commissioned by unions and civic associations. Born: 1959 in Pietermaritzburg. Interviewed: 1986 in Harare. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Aziz Pahad conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Barney Pityana conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in Birmingham, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part one of the transcript of an interview with Revd Beyers Naude conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part two of the transcript of an interview with Revd Beyers Naude conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 3 transcript of an interview with Billy Nair conducted by Julie Frederikse in August 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 3 transcript of an interview with Billy Nair conducted by Julie Frederikse in August 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 3 of 3 transcript of an interview with Billy Nair conducted by Julie Frederikse in August 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Breyten Breytenbach, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Breyten Breytenbach was released from prison after serving five years of his seven-year sentence and returned to Paris. In 1986 he went back to South Africa to receive the Rapport (Afrikaans newspaper) award, one of the country's most prestigious literary prizes, and donated part of it towards aid to political prisoners. In 1987 he helped coordinate the historic meeting between Afrikaans writers and intellectuals and the ANC in Dakar, Senegal. Born: 1939 in Bonnievale, Cape. Interviewed: 1985 in Harare. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Buras Nhlabathi conducted by Julie Frederikse on 20 November 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This document is a transcript of a keynote address given by Cheryl Carolus at the launch of the Grahamstown Committee of Democrats, May 1985. This document was digitised by Specialised Archival Solutions in 2015. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of a joint interview with the UDF National Executive Committee: Cheryl Carolus, Murphy Morobe and Mohammed Valli Moosa, conducted by Julie Frederikse in May 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Cheryl Carolus was a United Democratic Front (UDF) executive member. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of a joint interview with the UDF National Executive Committee: Cheryl Carolus, Murphy Morobe and Mohammed Valli Moosa, conducted by Julie Frederikse in May 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Cheryl Carolus was a United Democratic Front (UDF) executive member. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of a joint interview with the UDF National Executive Committee: Cheryl Carolus, Murphy Morobe and Mohammed Valli Moosa, conducted by Julie Frederikse in May 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Cheryl Carolus was a United Democratic Front (UDF) executive member. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of a joint interview with the UDF National Executive Committee: Cheryl Carolus, Murphy Morobe and Mohammed Valli Moosa, conducted by Julie Frederikse in May 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Cheryl Carolus was a United Democratic Front (UDF) executive member. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Chris Dlamini, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Chris Dlamini was elected vice-president of COSATU at its founding in 1985, and was elected president of the Food and Allied Workers Union (FAWU) when the COSATU affiliate was formed in 1986. At the public launch of the SACP in Johannesburg in 1990, he was named as a member of the party's Interim Leadership Group. Born: 1944 in Benoni. Interviewed: 1985 in Springs. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Cliffie Collings, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. A founder member of the United Committee of Concern (UCC), Cliffie Collings continued to serve as UCC coordinator, heading the Natal Advice Centres Association. In 1989 he and other UCC members were arrested in a march in support of the Defiance Campaign. Born: 1957 in Wentworth, Durban. Interviewed: 1987 in Harare. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Cyril Ramaphosa conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Dan Tloome conducted by Julie Frederikse in March 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Dave Lewis conducted by Julie Frederikse on 29 May 1985 in Cape Town for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Dave Lewis was the General Workers Union (GWU) General-Secretary from 1980-1986. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 3 transcripts of an interview with David Webster conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 3 transcripts of an interview with David Webster conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 3 of 3 transcripts of an interview with David Webster conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Denis Goldberg conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Denis Goldberg was sentenced to life imprisonment with Nelson Mandela and the rest of the Rivonia trialists in 1964. Elected a patron of the UDF at its founding in 1983, he was released from Pretoria Central Prison in 1985 after a lengthy campaign for his release by his daughter (who had moved to Israel) and her fellow kibbutz members. After consultations with the ANC leadership, he began work in the ANC's London office. Born: 1933 in Cape Town. Interviewed: 1986 in London. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Dennis Brutus, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Dennis Brutus was active in the Unity Movement-oriented Teachers League of South Africa (TLSA) in the Eastern Cape in the 1940s and 1950s. He helped found the anti-apartheid South African Sports Association in 1958. In 1961 he helped organise a national convention of coloured activists at Malmesbury in the Western Cape, which led to his banning and arrest. He was re-arrested after fleeing to Mozambique and sentenced to eighteen months on Robben Island. After leaving South Africa he re-established the renamed South African Non-racial Olympic Committee (SANROC) in London, and then went to the US, where he was a professor and noted poet. Born: 1924 in Salisbury (now Harare), Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Died: December 2009. Interviewed: 1987 in Washington, DC. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part one of the transcript of an interview with Devan Pillay conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part two of the transcript of an interview with Devan Pillay conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part three of the transcript of an interview with Devan Pillay conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part four of the transcript of an interview with Devan Pillay conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part five of the transcript of an interview with Devan Pillay conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Diliza Mji conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Diliza Mji was the South African Students Organisation (SASO) National President 1975-1976. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Dorothy Nyembe conducted by Julie Frederikse in August 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Dr Francois Bill, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Dr Francois Bill served as chaplain at Fort Hare University and lecturer at the Federal Theological Seminary from 1971 to 1974, both blacks only institutions in the Eastern Cape. He left the Federal Theological Seminary when the government took it over, and helped reestablish it near Pietermaritzburg. In 1981 he was elected moderator of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Southern Africa and secretary of the Alliance of Black Reformed Churches in South Africa (ABRECSA). He was detained under Emergency regulations in 1987 and held in solitary confinement while the state threatened to charge him for promulgating 'liberation theology'. He was released without charge after eight months, when his wife instigated legal action against the state. Born: 1934 at Elim Mission, Shiluvane, Transvaal. Deceased, date of death unknown. Interviewed: 1985 in Harare. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Esther Barsel, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Esther Barsel was detained in 1964 and launched a hunger strike with fellow women prisoners, which she continued for 35 days. She was charged with twelve others, including Bram Fischer, with reconstituting the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) underground, and was sentenced to three years in prison. On her release she was house arrested for six years. She was 'unlisted' with the unbanning of the SACP, and immediately re-entered public political activity. She was also active in the Friends of the Soviet Union (FSU) in the 1940s and 1950s. Born: 1924 in Lithuania. Died: October 2008. Interviewed: 1985 in Johannesburg. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Farid Esack, conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Farid Esack had his passport withdrawn by the government in 1989, following his active campaigning for the MDM inside the country and on overseas tours. He resigned from the Call of Islam executive in a dispute over organisational issues in late 1989. Born: 1957 in Wynberg. Interviewed: 1987 in Harare. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Fink Haysom conducted by Julie Frederikse her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Fink Haysom completed his law degree and went to work for the Centre for Applied Legal Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand in 1981. That same year he was detained in a nation-wide swoop on white activists and banned upon his release in 1982. His work monitoring repression in Ciskei from 1983 was published in 1986 as 'Mabangalala: The Rise of Right-wing Vigilantes in South Africa'. In 1987 he helped set up a public interest law practice in Johannesburg. Born: 1952 in Johannesburg. Interviewed: 1985 in Johannesburg. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is issue 23 of the 'FOSATU Worker News', published in August 1983. The front page of the newsletter is reproduced in chapter fifteen of Julie Frederikse's book 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa', originally published by Ravan Press in 1990. Included in SAHA's virtual exhibition 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa'

This is part 1 of 3 transcripts of an interview with Francis Meli conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Francis Meli was an ANC Youth League member in the Eastern Cape, stronghold of the non-racial camp. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 3 transcripts of an interview with Francis Meli conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Francis Meli was an ANC Youth League member in the Eastern Cape, stronghold of the non-racial camp. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 3 of 3 transcripts of an interview with Francis Meli conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Francis Meli was an ANC Youth League member in the Eastern Cape, stronghold of the non-racial camp. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Frank Chikane, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Frank Chikane was charged with treason in 1985, but was acquitted in the marathon Pietermaritzburg trial of top UDF leaders. In 1987 he was named General-Secretary of the SACC. He has been repeatedly detained and harassed by the Security Police, his home petrol-bombed and a bomb sent to his mother. During a tour of the US in mid-1989 with MDM leaders who met President Bush he fell seriously ill, and tests conducted at an American university showed that a toxic phosphate compound had been administered to his clothes and luggage before he left South Africa in an apparent attempt to poison him. Born: 1951 in Orlando, Johannesburg. Interviewed: 1985 in Johannesburg. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Fred Carneson, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Fred Carneson was one of the first South African soldiers to see active service in 1939, serving in the North African and Italian campaigns. He was elected to the CPSA national executive and was among those charged in the 1946 sedition trial following the miners' strike. In 1965 he was convicted of being a member of the underground SACP, but was acquitted of Umkhonto we Sizwe activities on a technicality and thus was sentenced to six years in prison instead of life. Upon his release the government gave him a choice of 24-hour house arrest or an exit permit, so he went to England and worked for the ANC. Born: 1920, Goodwood, Cape Province. Died: September 2000. Interviewed: 1986 in London Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Frene Ginwala conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Frene Ginwala was about to join chambers with advocate Bram Fischer when the ANC asked her to help get Oliver Tambo out of South Africa and assist in setting up the ANC's external mission in 1960. She stayed on in Tanzania after the banning of the ANC, completed a doctorate at Oxford University, and then worked in the ANC's London office. Born: 1932 in Johannesburg. Interviewed: 1987 in London. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Fumanekile Gqiba conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Rev Gqiba finished his theological degree at the University of Cape Town in 1985, then fled to Lesotho when he learned that police were planning to arrest him for underground ANC activities. He was deported from Lesotho when ANC members were rounded up following the 1986 coup. He then helped form the ANC's Department of Religious Affairs. Born: 1951 in Cape Town. Interviewed: 1987 in Arusha. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Gerhard Maré conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Gerhard Maré was a founder member of the periodical 'Work in Progress' in 1977 which was devoted to analysing South African political developments. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Gerhard Maré conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Gerhard Maré was a founder member of the periodical 'Work in Progress' in 1977 which was devoted to analysing South African political developments. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Graham Morodi conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a copy of the Group Areas Act, Act No 41 of 1950. Under the Group Areas Act (1950) the cities and towns of South Africa were divided into segregated residential and business areas. Thousands of Coloureds, Blacks, and Indians were removed from areas classified for white occupation. Included in SAHA's virtual exhibition 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa'

This is a transcript of an interview with Helen Joseph conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Helen Joseph was a founder member of the Congress of Democrats (COD) and the Federation of South African Women (FEDSAW) and participated in the historic march on Pretoria in 1956. She was banned for the first time in 1957 and detained for five months in 1960. After her ban expired in 1962, she undertook a 7,000-mile journey throughout the country seeking out banished people, and was then served with South Africa's first house arrest order. Her ban was lifted in 1971 when she was suffering from cancer, but was reimposed from 1980 to 1982. She was elected a patron of the UDF and spoke at its 1983 launch, continuing to campaign for the MDM despite failing health. Born: 1905 in Sussex, England. Died: December 1992 in Johannesburg. Interviewed: 1985 in Johannesburg. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Henry Isaacs conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Henry Isaacs moved to Zimbabwe in 1983, then went back to the US, where he worked as a politically non-aligned consultant on southern African affairs He wrote a book on the PAC, 'Struggle within the Struggle', which fell victim to British libel laws before its planned publication in 1986. Born: 1949 in Raisethorpe, Pietermaritzburg. Interviewed: 1987 in Washington DC. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Horst Kleinschmidt conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Horst Kleinschmidt was detained for three months in 1975 as a result of Breyten Breytenbach's experiment in underground work, and left South Africa upon his release. He went to Holland, where he opened a Christian Institute office, then moved to London and joined the International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa (IDAF), where he is now director. In mid-I990 he returned to South Africa for consultations on the repatriation of exiles. Born: 1945 in Swakopmund, Namibia. Interviewed: 1986 in London. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with I.B. Tabata and Jane Gool conducted by Julie Frederikse on 1 December 1986 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Ian Mkhize conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Ian Mkhize was a one-time member of the Pietermaritzburg African National Congress (ANC) branch. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Ian Mkhize conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Ian Mkhize was a one-time member of the Pietermaritzburg African National Congress (ANC) branch. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Ian Mkhize conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Ian Mkhize was a one-time member of the Pietermaritzburg African National Congress (ANC) branch. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Ian Mkhize conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Ian Mkhize was a one-time member of the Pietermaritzburg African National Congress (ANC) branch. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part a transcript of an interview with Ibrahim Yusuf conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Ilva Mackay conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Ilva Mackay was a South African Students Organisation (SASO) activist who also worked in the London and Lusaka South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU) offices. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Indres Naidoo conducted by Julie Frederikse in March 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Jack Simons conducted by Julie Frederikse in January 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Jackie Jolobe conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Jackie Jolobe was a member of the first Congress of South African Students (COSAS). He left South Africa in 1980, then worked for the ANC in Botswana. Her husband, Rogers Mevi Nkadimeng (the son of SACTU General-Secretary John Nkadimeng), was killed in a car bomb explosion in Gaborone in 1985. She then studied in Harare while working with the ANC. Born: 1959 in Soweto. Interviewed: 1985 in Nairobi, Kenya. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Jacob Zuma conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with James Mndaweni conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1986 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. James Mndaweni was a former Council of Unions of South Africa (CUSA) leader who was elected National Council of Trade Unions(NACTU) president. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with James Phillips conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with James Stuart conducted by Julie Frederikse in September 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part one of the transcript of an interview with Janet Cherry, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Janet Cherry helped found branches of the UDF and ECC in Port Elizabeth while working at the Eastern Cape Adult Literacy Project. She has endured continual harassment and physical attacks on her home, office, car and person, and has been detained five times since 1985. She was held without charge, mainly in solitary confinement, for nearly a year in 1986-87. In 1988 she went to work for the Port Elizabeth IDASA office, was detained again, then released under restriction. She was awarded the Reebok International Human Rights Award for Young Activists in December 1988, though her restrictions prevented her from personally accepting the prize in New York. Born: 1961 in Cape Town. Interviewed: 1985 in Port Elizabeth. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part two of the transcript of an interview with Janet Cherry, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Janet Cherry helped found branches of the UDF and ECC in Port Elizabeth while working at the Eastern Cape Adult Literacy Project. She has endured continual harassment and physical attacks on her home, office, car and person, and has been detained five times since 1985. She was held without charge, mainly in solitary confinement, for nearly a year in 1986-87. In 1988 she went to work for the Port Elizabeth IDASA office, was detained again, then released under restriction. She was awarded the Reebok International Human Rights Award for Young Activists in December 1988, though her restrictions prevented her from personally accepting the prize in New York. Born: 1961 in Cape Town. Interviewed: 1985 in Port Elizabeth. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Jay Naidoo conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part one of the transcript of an interview with Jeremy Cronin, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Jeremy Cronin published a volume of prison poetry ('Inside', Ravan Press) upon his release in 1983, and was elected to the UDF Western Cape executive. With fellow former political prisoner Raymond Suttner he co-authored 'Thirty Years of the Freedom Charter' (Ravan Press, first banned and then unbanned in 1986), which played an important role in popularising the document for younger activists. In 1987, after spending more than a year in hiding during the State of Emergency, he fled South Africa and worked for the ANC in both political and cultural structures in Lusaka. In 1990 he returned to South Africa and began working in the Johannesburg office of the SACP. Born: 1949 in Durban. Interviewed: 1985 in Cape Town. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part two of the transcript of an interview with Jeremy Cronin, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Jeremy Cronin published a volume of prison poetry ('Inside', Ravan Press) upon his release in 1983, and was elected to the UDF Western Cape executive. With fellow former political prisoner Raymond Suttner he co-authored 'Thirty Years of the Freedom Charter' (Ravan Press, first banned and then unbanned in 1986), which played an important role in popularising the document for younger activists. In 1987, after spending more than a year in hiding during the State of Emergency, he fled South Africa and worked for the ANC in both political and cultural structures in Lusaka. In 1990 he returned to South Africa and began working in the Johannesburg office of the SACP. Born: 1949 in Durban. Interviewed: 1985 in Cape Town. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part three of the transcript of an interview with Jeremy Cronin, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Jeremy Cronin published a volume of prison poetry ('Inside', Ravan Press) upon his release in 1983, and was elected to the UDF Western Cape executive. With fellow former political prisoner Raymond Suttner he co-authored 'Thirty Years of the Freedom Charter' (Ravan Press, first banned and then unbanned in 1986), which played an important role in popularising the document for younger activists. In 1987, after spending more than a year in hiding during the State of Emergency, he fled South Africa and worked for the ANC in both political and cultural structures in Lusaka. In 1990 he returned to South Africa and began working in the Johannesburg office of the SACP. Born: 1949 in Durban. Interviewed: 1985 in Cape Town. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part four of the transcript of an interview with Jeremy Cronin, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Jeremy Cronin published a volume of prison poetry ('Inside', Ravan Press) upon his release in 1983, and was elected to the UDF Western Cape executive. With fellow former political prisoner Raymond Suttner he co-authored 'Thirty Years of the Freedom Charter' (Ravan Press, first banned and then unbanned in 1986), which played an important role in popularising the document for younger activists. In 1987, after spending more than a year in hiding during the State of Emergency, he fled South Africa and worked for the ANC in both political and cultural structures in Lusaka. In 1990 he returned to South Africa and began working in the Johannesburg office of the SACP. Born: 1949 in Durban. Interviewed: 1985 in Cape Town. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part five of the transcript of an interview with Jeremy Cronin, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Jeremy Cronin published a volume of prison poetry ('Inside', Ravan Press) upon his release in 1983, and was elected to the UDF Western Cape executive. With fellow former political prisoner Raymond Suttner he co-authored 'Thirty Years of the Freedom Charter' (Ravan Press, first banned and then unbanned in 1986), which played an important role in popularising the document for younger activists. In 1987, after spending more than a year in hiding during the State of Emergency, he fled South Africa and worked for the ANC in both political and cultural structures in Lusaka. In 1990 he returned to South Africa and began working in the Johannesburg office of the SACP. Born: 1949 in Durban. Interviewed: 1985 in Cape Town. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Jessie Duarte, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Jessie Duarte worked for FedTraw and as an assistant to Reverend Beyers Naude. She was detained for most of 1988, then released under restrictions. When the ANC was unbanned she began work in its Johannesburg office. Born: 1953 in Newclare, Johannesburg. Interviewed: 1986 in Harare. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Joe Seremane conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Joe Slovo conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1988 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Joe Thloloe conducted by Julie Frederikse in August 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with John Nkadimeng conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Kassavello Goonam conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Dr Goonam helped organise opposition to the government-created South African Indian Council in the mid-1970s, until Security Police harassment prompted her to leave South Africa for England in 1977. She settled in Zimbabwe soon after independence, then returned to South Africa after the ANC was unbanned. Born: 1905 (approximately) in Durban. Interviewed: 1987 in Harare. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Kay Moonsamy conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Klaas De Jonge, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. A Dutch Anti-Apartheid Movement activist, Klaas de Jonge was arrested for Umkhonto we Sizwe activities in 1985. He spent two years holed up in the Dutch Embassy where he sought refuge after escaping Security Police. Born: 1937 in Groningen, Holland. Interviewed: 1987 in Arusha, Tanzania. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Kumi Naidoo conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Laurie Nathan conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 3 transcripts of an interview with Lechesa Tsenoli conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 3 transcripts of an interview with Lechesa Tsenoli conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 3 of 3 transcripts of an interview with Lechesa Tsenoli conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Lesoana Makhanda conducted by Julie Frederikse in April 1987 in Arusha, Tanzania, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Lesoana Makhanda was a member of the Pan Africanist Congress's (PAC) United Nations(UN) Office and was named UN representative in 1986. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with M.B. Yengwa conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with M.D. Naidoo conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Marius Schoon conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1986 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Masterpiece Gumede conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Masterpiece Gumede (a pseudonym adopted in 1977 when he left South Africa) worked for the ANC's Radio Freedom in Tanzania, then moved to ANC headquarters in Zambia. Born: 1952 in Durban. Interviewed: 1986 in Dar es Salaam. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Max Sisulu conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Mike Mailula conducted by Julie Frederikse in July 1986 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Mike Mailula was a Young Christian Students (YCS) member and national organiser from 1985-1987. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Mike Roussos conducted by Julie Frederikse in December 1986 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Mkhuseli Jack conducted by Julie Frederikse her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Mkhuseli Jack helped form the Port Elizabeth Youth Congress (PEYCO) in 1982 and the United Democratic Front (UDF) in 1983. He served on the UDF's Eastern Cape regional executive and as spokesperson for the Eastern Cape Consumer Boycott Committee until his detention in 1985, when he was severely assaulted and tortured. Born: 1958 in Humansdorp, Eastern Cape. Interviewed: 1985 in Port Elizabeth. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Molly Blackburn, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Molly Blackburn was the Port Elizabeth Black Sash leader and Progressive Federal Party member of the Provincial Council from early to mid 1980s. She was killed in a car accident in 1985, along with Civil Rights League leader Brian Bishop. They had been travelling from Oudtshoorn's Bongolethu township after collecting affidavits from residents regarding army and police raids on their community. Her funeral drew an unprecedented 20,000 people of all colours, and ANC President Oliver Tambo said that 'the name of Molly Blackburn will also be inscribed on our roll of honour'. Born: 1930 in Port Elizabeth. Died: 1985. Interviewed: 1985 in Port Elizabeth. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Mongezi Radebe conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Mzala conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Nise Malange conducted by Julie Frederikse in August 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Nise Malange worked for Federation of South African Trade Unions(FOSATU) from 1982 to 1985. She was also an organiser for the Transport and General Workers Union. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Nise Malange conducted by Julie Frederikse in August 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Nise Malange worked for Federation of South African Trade Unions(FOSATU) from 1982 to 1985. She was also an organiser for the Transport and General Workers Union. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 3 transcripts of an interview with Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma conducted by Julie Frederikse in June 1986 in, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Nozizwe Madlala conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Nosizwe Madlala was a founder member of the Natal Organisation of Women (NOW) and she was on the United Democratic Front (UDF) regional executive. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of a transcript of an interview with Paddy Kearney conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Paddy Kearny, director of the Diakonia Ecumenical Church Agency, was detained in 1985 and released in response to an application filed by Archbishop Denis Hurley arguing that the detention violated the provision of the Internal Security Act requiring that there be 'reason to believe' that he was guilty of a security offence. Kearney later successfully sued for wrongful arrest and detention. Born: 1942 in Pietermaritzburg. Interviewed: 1985 in Durban. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of a transcript of an interview with Paddy Kearney conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Paddy Kearny, director of the Diakonia Ecumenical Church Agency, was detained in 1985 and released in response to an application filed by Archbishop Denis Hurley arguing that the detention violated the provision of the Internal Security Act requiring that there be 'reason to believe' that he was guilty of a security offence. Kearney later successfully sued for wrongful arrest and detention. Born: 1942 in Pietermaritzburg. Interviewed: 1985 in Durban. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Pandelani Nefolovhodwe conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Papi Mokoena conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Patrick Flusk, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Patrick Flusk joined the Anti-PC in 1984 and was elected president of the Riverlea Youth Congress in 1985. He was detained in 1988 and released under restriction in 1989 after going on a hunger strike. He was presented with the Nelson Mandela Award for Courage and Hope in the Swedish parliament. Born: 1964 in Riverlea, Johannesburg. Interviewed: 1986 in Harare. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 3 transcripts of an interview with Patrick Lekota conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1983 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Patrick Lekota was a South African Students Organisation (SASO) founder member who was sentenced in 1976. He was elected as the first United Democratic Front (UDF) national publicity secretary. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 3 transcripts of an interview with Patrick Lekota conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1983 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Patrick Lekota was a South African Students Organisation (SASO) founder member who was sentenced in 1976. He was elected as the first United Democratic Front (UDF) national publicity secretary. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 3 of 3 transcripts of an interview with Patrick Lekota conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1983 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Patrick Lekota was a South African Students Organisation (SASO) founder member who was sentenced in 1976. He was elected as the first United Democratic Front (UDF) national publicity secretary. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Peter Mahlangu conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Toronto, Canada, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Peter Mahlangu was an organiser for the independent South African Allied Workers Union (SAAWU), formed in 1979 as a breakaway from the Black Consciousness supporting Black Allied Workers Union (BAWU). Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Peter Williams conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Preston Geswint, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Preston Geswint was a secondary school student in Port Elizabeth during the 1980 school boycotts. He remained in Port Elizabeth and taught in the township of New Brighton. Born: 1963 in Calvandale, Port Elizabeth. Interviewed: 1986 in Harare. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a copy of the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, Act No 55 of 1949. This act forbade marriages between Whites and other races. The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act No 55 of 1949 (commenced 8 July 1949) forbade marriages between Whites and other races. Included in SAHA's virtual exhibition 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa'

This Leaders' Project report entitled "Rethinking non-racialism: Reflections of a selection of South African leaders" was published by the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation in 2012. The project was commissioned by the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation and conducted by researchers at the Centre for the Study of Democracy in 2011.

This is a transcript of an interview with Pule Thate conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with R.D. Naidu conducted by Julie Frederikse in August 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Ralph Mzamo conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part one of the transcript of an interview with Ray Alexander, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Ray Alexander helped found the Food and Canning Workers Union in 1941, and was elected to represent Africans in parliament in 1954, but the government passed a law to prevent her from taking her seat. She also served as the first FedSAW national secretary. In 1964 government bannings forced her into exile in Zambia, where she worked for SACTU, the ANC and the SACP. Alexander and her husband became the first exiles to return home after the unbanning of the ANC and SACP. Born: 1914 in Varkliam, Latvia. Died: September 2004. Interviewed: 1986 in Harare, Zimbabwe, and in 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part two of the transcript of an interview with Ray Alexander, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Ray Alexander helped found the Food and Canning Workers Union in 1941, and was elected to represent Africans in parliament in 1954, but the government passed a law to prevent her from taking her seat. She also served as the first FedSAW national secretary. In 1964 government bannings forced her into exile in Zambia, where she worked for SACTU, the ANC and the SACP. Alexander and her husband became the first exiles to return home after the unbanning of the ANC and SACP. Born: 1914 in Varkliam, Latvia. Died: September 2004. Interviewed: 1986 in Harare, Zimbabwe, and in 1987 in Lusaka, Zambia. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Raymond Suttner conducted by Julie Frederikse in May 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 2 transcripts of an interview with Raymond Suttner conducted by Julie Frederikse in May 1985 in Johannesburg for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Reg September conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Reggie Oliphant conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Rehana Rossouw conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Roland White conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Grahamstown for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Sacky Madi conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1986 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Sacky Madi was a member of the Soweto Students Representative Council that organised the 1976 uprising. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Saleem Badat, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Saleem Badat was a member of the AZASO national executive from Natal who became national organiser for Grassroots community newspaper in Cape Town. Born: 1957 in Asherville, Durban. Interviewed: 1987 in York, England. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Sasha Mereyotlhe conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Shasha Mereyotlhe was an organiser for the South African Domestic Workers Union (SADWU), a Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) affiliate. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is volume one, number one of 'Sechaba', the official organ of the African National Congress (ANC) of South Africa, published in January 1967. Included in the virtual exhibition 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa'

This is part one of the transcript of an interview with Sheena Duncan, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Sheena Duncan was Black Sash president from 1975-1985 and continued to work in the advice office. A member of the board of the South African Council of Churches, she was a major force behind the launch of the Five Freedoms Forum. Born: 1932 in Johannesburg. Died: May 2010. Interviewed: 1985 in Johannesburg. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part two of the transcript of an interview with Sheena Duncan, conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Sheena Duncan was Black Sash president from 1975-1985 and continued to work in the advice office. A member of the board of the South African Council of Churches, she was a major force behind the launch of the Five Freedoms Forum. Born: 1932 in Johannesburg. Died: May 2010. Interviewed: 1985 in Johannesburg. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Simpiwe Mgoduso conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Simpiwe Mgoduso was a member of the Azanian Students Organisation (AZASO) Natal branch since 1980 and national president from 1984 to 1985. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a speech delivered by Nelson Mandela upon his release from prison on the 11th February 1990. Included in SAHA's online edition of the book and in the virtual exhibition 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa'

This is a transcript of an interview with Stanley Mabizela conducted by Julie Frederikse in March 1986 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Stanley Mabizela was jailed in 1963 for African National Congress (ANC) activities, worked underground from 1964-1966 and then fled to Swaziland where he taught at a Catholic mission school until being named ANC Chief Representative in 1978. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This 'Statement by the Commission on the Feasibility of a United Front against the Constitutional Reform Proposals' was issued on 23 January 1983 at the Anti-SAIC Conference, Selbourne Hall, Johannesburg. Included in SAHA's virtual exhibition 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa'

This is a transcript of an interview with Stephanie Kemp conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Stephanie Kemp was recruited to the African Resistance Movement (ARM) while studying at the University of Cape Town (UCT). She served seventeen months of her three-year prison sentence, then left South Africa for London and joined the ANC. Born: 1941 in Stansburg, Little Karoo. Interviewed: 1986 in London. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Lechesa Tsenoli conducted by Julie Frederikse on 5 November 1987 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a copy of the Terrorism Act , Act No 83 of 1967. The act prohibited terroristic activities and to amend the law relating to criminal procedure; and to provide for other incidental matters. Included in SAHA's virtual exhibition 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa'

This is a copy of the Internal Security Act (Suppression of Communism Act) No 44 of 1950. This act, commenced on 17 July 1950, banned communism and the Community Party in South Africa. Communism was defined so broadly that it covered any call for radical change. Communists could be banned from participating in a political organization and restricted to a particular area. Other listed organizations and persons believed to be promoting 'communism' were also banned. Included in SAHA's virtual exhibition 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa'

This is a transcript of an interview with Themba Nxumalo conducted by Julie Frederikse on 18 August 1985 in Durban for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Tom Waspe conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1986 in Harare, Zimbabwe, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Tony Holiday conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. A reporter with the Rand Daily Mail, Tony Holiday was sentenced to six years in prison in 1976 for producing ANC and SACP material underground, and earned his BA Hons cum laude during his prison term. He left South Africa after his release, completed a PhD in philosophy at Oxford, then began lecturing at Thames Polytechnic. Born: 1940 in Cape Town. Interviewed: 1986 in London. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Trevor Manuel conducted by Julie Frederikse in May 1985 in Cape Town for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Trevor Manuel was a United Democratic Front Western Cape executive member. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

The front matter for the 2015 edition of Julie Frederikse's 'The Unbreakable Thread: Non-racialism in South Africa' contains the following sections: 'About SAHA', 'Content', Foreword', 'Glossary' and 'Notes on this Edition', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA), 2016. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990. Included in the online exhibition entitled 'Tracing the Unbreakable Thread, Non-racialism in South Africa'.

The 'Author's Reflection: Southern African Mashups' was written by Julie Frederikse for the commemorative edition of 'The Unbreakable Thread: Non-racialism in South Africa, published by the South African History (SAHA) in 2016. The images and documents included in the Author's Reflection were obtained from Julie Frederikse's personal archives, SAHA collections as well as a number of online sources. Frederikse loaned a selection of materials from her personal archives to SAHA to be digitised for inclusion in the Author's reflection in the new edition of 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa'. While some of the images and documents selected for inclusion were digitised in-house, the majority was digitised by Specialised Archival Solutions in 2015. All of the items digitised have been processed as part of the Julie Frederikse collection. Included in the online exhibition entitled 'Tracing the Unbreakable Thread, Non-racialism in South Africa'.

This is chapter one: 'Our Fathers Dwelt Together In Peace' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter two: 'White Workers! On Which Side Are You?' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter three: 'Battle of the Bantu' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa',', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter four: 'Class of '44' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter five: 'Natural Allies' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter six: 'Tomorrow It's Going To Be You' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter seven: 'Against The Common Enemy' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter eight: 'The Shape of Things To Come' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter nine: 'The Freedom Front' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter ten: 'Dynamic & Irresistible Force' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter eleven: 'Against White Domination & Black Domination' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter twelve: 'The Lull' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter thirteen: 'Black Man, You're On Your Own' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter fourteen: 'Then Who Is Our Enemy?' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter fifteen: 'A Very Obvious Contradiction' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter sixteen: 'The Most I Can Do Is To Be The Least Obstruction' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter seventeen: 'Elders' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter eighteen: 'We Are Convinced Now' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter nineteen: 'In The Spirit Of The Nation In The Making' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter twenty: 'Isn't That What We Are Fighting For' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter twenty-one: 'Straddling Both Camps, The People's and The Enemy's' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter twenty-two: 'The Whole Pyramid Is Shaking' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter twenty-three: 'The Movement is Very Big Now' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is chapter twenty-four: 'The Future In The Present' of the online edition of Julie Frederikse's book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by the South African History Archive (SAHA) in September 2015. This publication is based on Julie Frederikse's 'The unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa' originally published by Ravan Press in 1990.

This is a transcript of an interview with Wantu Zenzile conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1987 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Willie Hofmeyr conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Willie Hofmeyr was elected to the Western Cape UDF executive in 1986, and in 1988 was detained and issued with a restriction order upon his release. He attained his law degree despite being barred from attending lectures, then began practising as a human rights lawyer. In 1989 he was one of a group of 22 restricted leaders who declared themselves unbanned as part of the MDM's Defiance Campaign. Detained, he won his release by staging a 28-day hunger strike, but was again severely restricted. Born: 1954 in Pinelands, Cape Town. Interviewed: 1985 in Cape Town. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Wolfie Kodesh conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Wolfie Kodesh worked full-time for the Non-European Railway Workers Union. He was first banned in 1953, and in 1960 was one of the first to be jailed under the 90-day detention law. He accepted the government's offer of an exit permit and spent the next ten years in Lusaka and Luanda as head of the ANC's logistics unit, until ill health prompted him to go to London, where he worked in the ANC office. Born: 1918 in Benoni, Transvaal. Died: October 2002. Interviewed: 1986 in London. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Zelda Holtzman (with Noma-India Mfeketo) conducted by Julie Frederikse for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Zelda Holtzman helped launch the African National Congress (ANC)'s Athlone branch. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is a transcript of an interview with Zola Zembe (Archie Sibeko) conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1986 in London, England, for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 1 of 2 transcript of an interview with Zora Mehlomakhulu conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Cape Town for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Zora Mehlomakhulu was a former South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU) official in Cape Town. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

This is part 2 of 2 transcript of an interview with Zora Mehlomakhulu conducted by Julie Frederikse in 1985 in Cape Town for her book 'The Unbreakable Thread: non-racialism in South Africa', published by Ravan Press, 1990. Zora Mehlomakhulu was a former South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU) official in Cape Town. Included in the SAHA online repository 'Tracing the unbreakable thread: non-racialism in South Africa today'

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