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Timeline


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1950
The liberation movements that led the armed struggle for Zimbabwean independence evolved from trade union and nationalist organisations which, in turn, developed into mass protests in the 1950s.
1959
Southern Rhodesian African National Congress was banned.
December 1961
The National Democratic Party, which succeeded the Southern Rhodesian African National Congress was banned, barely two years in existence.
1962
ZAPU was banned.
1962
During the year 1962, arms came in from Tanganyika through Northern Rhodesia to Bulawayo.
1962
As early as the 1962, Zambians welcomed ZAPU exiles and continued to provide a base throughout the struggle until Zimbabwe gained independence.
1963
ZAPU established an army, first known as the Special Affairs Department, then later in 1971, the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZPRA or ZIPRA).
1963
Military training of army personnel took place and continued until 1979.
March 1963
Jack Ngwenya was sent to establish an office in Lusaka, Zambia.
1965
Edward Ndlovu represented ZAPU at the Tri-Continental Conference in Havana where Fidel Castro assumed the role of benefactor of third-world liberation.
1967
Wankie and Sipolilo Campaigns took place in alliance with the ANC in South Africa.
1970
Towards the end of the 1970s, ZAPU received tens of thousands of refugees. It accommodated them and those who were old enough received military training.
1970
A large number of military recruits and refugees flooded Zambia.
1970
By the mid-1970s, ZAPU structures were all well established in Botswana.
1971
ZPRA or ZIPRA was formed.
1974
Towards the end of 1974, Ian Smith released imprisoned and restricted leaders of ZAPU and ZANU.
18 March 1975
Herbert Wiltshire Chitepo was assassinated.
1976
Following the closure of the training camp in Morogoro, another base was established in Southern Zambia, known as Camp for Guerrilla Training. (CGT)
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1976
Geneva Conference took place.
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1977
Victory Camp became a staging place for all women and girls.
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1977
Between the the 1977 and during the 1980s, people joined the struggle in droves.
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1977
The Women's Brigade was formed.
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January 1977
Jason Ziyaphapha Moyo was assassinated. JZ Moyo Camp was named in his honour.
1978
Towards the end of 1978, a new camp was opened at Mulungushi, North-East of Lusaka, Zambia. Nearly 10 000 men were trained there.
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1978
Commander Alfred Nikita Mangena when a landmine exploded under his vehicle. He was en-route to investigate an ambush that claimed about 30 soldiers. He had been warned by fellow soldiers not to drive there but he insisted.
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October 1978
Freedom Camp was attacked. Joshua Nkomo's house was also attacked, simultaneously via air strikes and ground forces.
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1979
Lancaster House Conference took place.
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December 1979
Ceasefire declared and the constitution for an independent Zimbabwe was signed. Elections were scheduled for March 1980.
1980
The Zimbabwean government has, since 1980, been dominated by ZANU, a political party formed as a break-away from ZAPU IN 1963.
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March 1980
The first elections for an independent Zimbabwe took place.
1981
Political tensions led to violent disturbances post elections.
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1986
Lookout Masuku died after being ill in prison and transferred to hospital.
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