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Community: Azikhwelwa

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REGIONAL YOUTH CONGRESS WE SAY: NO TO FORCED REMOVALS : NO TO HIGH RENTS : FORWARD TO THE PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT AL2446_0467  produced at the Screen Training Project (STP) by trainee youth screen-printers. This image depicts the youth fighting against forced removals and high rent. MOWBRAY YOUTH CONGRESS invites you to a Pre-Christmas Fair AL2446_2609SAYCO Western Cape Region MASS RALLY : SAVE THE 36 ON DEATH ROW AL2446_0482  produced by SAYCO in 1987, Western Cape region. This poster was produced to advertise a mass rally. This mass rally which was organised by SAYCO, highlighted political prisoners on death row. Some of those on death row were convicted on the basis of 'common purpose', whereby an accused can be found guilty if it is proved that he or she was part of the crowd which committed the crime.COLOURED WHITE INDIAN THE PAST IS THEIRS, THE FUTURE IS OURS  AL2446_2608 produced by SAYCO in 1986, Saldanha. This poster publicises a youth congress' reaffirmation in its opposition to the apartheid's tricameral party.http://saha.org.za/imagesofdefinace/heroes_day_concert.htm

We will not ride!

KRUGERSDORP RESIDENTS' ORGANISATION: RESIDENTS MEETING 	AL2446_0251 produced by the Krugersdorp Residents Organisation (KRO) Ad-Hoc Committee at the Screen Training Project (STP), Johannesburg. This poster relates to a Krugersdorp residents meeting that allowed locals to discuss civic issues.

MASS RALLY STATE OF EMERGENCY CONSUMER BOYCOTT SCHOOLS  AL2446_2599 Mass rally to discuss the State of Emergency, and consumer and school boycotts. Silkscreened poster produced by the Athlone Action Committee at CAP

ROCKVILLE CIVIC ASSOCIATION: PUBLIC MEETING AL2446_0361 produced by the Rockville Civic Association at the Screen Training Project in circa in 1985. This image advertises a meeting to discuss community problems in Rockville.

The 1980s will be remembered as the decade during which the pillars of apartheid began to crumble in the face of popular insurrection. Apartheid is not simply a constitutional order that structures political life — it is also a social order that regulates the daily lives of South African people. This regulation is particularly repressive for black people: where they live, how they live, where they work, where their children are educated — all are determined by apartheid laws.


MASSA VERGADERING AL2446_2598produced by the ELSIE'S RIVER CIVIC at the Community Arts Project (CAP), Cape Town. This poster refers to a meeting on price rises and political elections. It is also interesting to note that the poster is in Afrikaans, the most common language used by coloured people in the Cape. MASS:MEETING VERGADERING DON'T VOTE AL2446_2597 produced by the Anti-Election Group of Ravensmead at the Community Arts Project (CAP), Cape Town. This poster refers to a mass meeting that was called to protest PW Botha’s ‘new deal’.

During the 1980s grassroots social movements arose, mobilising and organising communities around three primary issues:

Services, housing and land

Grassroots political democracy

Building new communities





THERE SHALL BE HOUSES SECURITY AND COMFORT FOR ALL: ABOLISH GROUP AREAS 1989 AL2446_0503 This poster was produced by a youth congress, who were based in a white area. This congress opposed the Group Areas Act and popularised the Freedom Charter's call for houses for all

Service, Housing and Land 

Beginning with the formation of the Port Elizabeth Black Civic Organisation (PEBCO) and the Soweto Civic Association (SCA) in 1979, 'civics' sprang up in communities across the country. The 1980 schools boycott in the Western Cape provided the impetus for Cape Town's neighbourhood-based civic movement. In Natal, from 1982 onwards, bus boycotts and rent struggles gave rise to civics in both the African and Indian areas.




JEWS FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE invite you to a PESACH PUBLIC MEETING Titled : FROM SLAVERY TO FREEDOM - THEN AND NOW  AL2446_0336 1986. Progressive Jewish group holds meeting to focus on the universal struggle for freedom.

ACTSTOP MAYFAIR PUBLIC MEETING SCRAP THE GROUP AREAS ACT OPPOSE THE NEW GROUPS BILLS SUPPORT THE CAMPAIGN TO OPEN RECREATIONAL FACILITIES FOR ALL AL2446_3563 produced for ACTSTOP, Johannesburg. This poster refers to a meeting held in 1988. This meeting discussed the campaign against the Group Areas Act and segregated areas.

When the UDF was founded in 1983, civics came together under this national umbrella body, and began to spread even more rapidly, with the Border and Eastern Cape regions becoming the best organised.


The 1985-86 consumer boycotts welded these separate civic organisations into an effective regional movement.

The Cradock Residents' Organisation led the way by emulating the 1950s 'M Plan'-organisation based on street committees, initiated by Nelson Mandela after the Defiance Campaign in 1952. This mode of organisation became a model for the rest of the country in the late 1980s.

GO TLA NNA LE MATLO, TSHIRELETSO LE TOLAMO : BATHO BA TLAA BUSA AL2446_2123   produced by members of the Huhudi Civic Association (HCA) at the Screen Training Project (STP), Johannesburg. This image refers to a calendar that portrays the struggle of the Huhudi community against the removals and poor living conditions in 1985.

NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNER 1984: UDF CELEBRATES AL2446_0168 1985. Democratic organisations honour Bishop Desmond Tutu, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize

Organisations took off quickly in the small Border, and Eastern Cape towns during the 1983-85 period, but it took much longer to filter through the huge urban sprawls and far-flung rural communities in the Transvaal.

The Transvaal regional stayaway in November 1984 paved the way for subsequent united union and community action. But despite the existence of civics in the Northern, Eastern and Southern Transvaal, it was not until the 1986 Transvaal rent boycotts that a Transvaal civic movement emerged with a sense of identity and explicit goals.

In the Bloemfontein area, South Africa's second largest township, Botshabelo, became the focus of a civic movement that linked local issues to resistance against incorporation into the QwaQwa bantustan.

Even smaller rural townships such as Huhudi, near Vryburg, saw community structures develop. Often mobilisation occurred when residents were confronted by a specific problem. In Huhudi, people were threatened with removal from their homes to a location far away within the borders of the Bophuthatswana bantustan.


ASIYI KWA NOBUHLE : WE DEMAND HOUSING SECURITY AND COMFORT : WE HAVE TO STAY WHERE WE WANT : UPGRADE LANGA AL2446_0249 produced for Langa residents at the Screening Training Program (STP), Johannesburg. This poster refers to housing demands conducted by the people of Langa, in the Eastern Cape. They demanded housing for all.



Grassroots Political Democracy

By grassroots social movements we refer to the classic combination of localorganisations: a civic or residents' organisation concerned with general community matters; a youth congress for the unemployed youth and young workers; a students' congress for school pupils; a women's organisation; an education committee of some kind (a parent-teacher-student association or crisis committee); a trade union local in the larger areas; and a string of local ad hoc issue-oriented committees, ranging from a commuter committee if there is a bus boycott, a consumer boycott committee, a squatters' committee, or an anti-removals committee. In many areas local progressive professional associations —lawyers, doctors, teachers, welfare officers, mental health workers and academics — worked together with the civic structures.

NTERNATIONAL YOUTH YEAR: RALLY AL2446_0171 	This poster is silkscreened black, blue, red and white, produced by the International Youth Year (IYY) Committee, Johannesburg.service for children in detention : GOOD FRIDAY 6.30 am . April 17th AL2446_0910

There were no rules as to which organisation should be dominant. Agreed direction was formulated by the leadership of different organisations working together. These were usually a combination of workers, youth, students, organised women and professionals. In certain areas, township-wide co-ordinating structures were established to bring all the organisations together.

The most significant feature of these social movements is that they established deeply rooted structures that brought ordinary people into the decision-making process for the first time. This was done via the street and area committee system. Each street would, at a broad-based house meeting, elect a street committee, which in turn sent representatives to an area (or zone) committee.


YOUTH ON THE MARCH TO FREEDOM AL2446_0143 produced by the Churches IYY Committee, Johannesburg. This image advertises the churches aim at mobilizing the youth during International Youth Year.REJECT CONSTITUTION AND ARMY CALL-UP AL2446_3866 produced by the United Democratic Front (UDF) student and youth affiliates at the Screen Training Project (STP), Johannesburg.WORKER SUNDAY : we demand safe and healthy working conditions  AL2446_2162  produced by the Labour Programme of Diakonia, Durban. This poster refers to the churches expressing their solidarity with the workers’ struggle.People in Pain: How long will you and I be silent? AL2446_0589 produced by the Student Union for Christian Action (SUCA), Johannesburg. This poster shows how the United Nations-sponsored International Youth year helped progressive youth structures to recruit and organise new members.



	A WOMAN'S PLACE IS IN THE Struggle NOT BEHIND BARS! AL2446_0038  commissioned by the Detainees Parents Support Committee (DPSC), but had to be issued by the Federation of Transvaal Women (FEDTRAW) after DPSC was restricted. This poster was produced by The Other Press Service (TOPS) for DPSC, circa 1988. This poster refers to how many women have been detained as a result of their contribution to the struggle.OUR MOTHER MA SISULU : SUBPOENAED TO GIVE EVIDENCE AGAINST HER SON : STOP HARASSING OUR LEADERS AL2446_0037 	This poster is an offset litho is in black and red, issued by FEDTRAW, Johannesburg. This poster depicts Albertina Sisulu, the UDF preidents, was subpoenaed to give evidence against her nephew, who was on trial for liberation movement activities.


The area committees were represented on a township-wide co-ordinating committee. These co-ordinating committees usually began defensively, to protect the community from state repression and sometimes crime. However, in many areas these structures laid the basis for innovative, pro-active development strategies. This network of social movements began to break down apartheid-imposed structures and recreate communities according to democratic principles.




HAMBA KAHLE COMRADE BABA TOLENI NO LIBERATION WITHOUT WOMEN AL2446_2606   produced for the United Women’s Congress (UWCO) by the Community Arts Project (CAP), Cape Town. This poster titled ‘Go well’ in isiXhosa depicts a farewell to a woman comrade who died in the service of the struggle.

WELCOME DOROTHY NYEMBE : Women of South Africa are proud of you : March 1984 AL2446_2407  produced at STP for FEDSAW. This poster features a drawing of activist, Dorothy Nyembe, who was released from prison after a 15-year sentence.


Many community struggles developed in protest against apartheid regulation of basic urban necessities: housing. land, services (such as water and sewerage), transport, health care, child care, and education. This struggle clashed head-on with local government structures, which are notoriously corrupt, elected on extremely low polls (where elections took place at all), administratively inefficient and fiscally un-viable.





NATIONAL WOMENS DAY AL2446_2604 produced by the Community Arts Project (CAP), Cape Town. This poster celebrates the 9 August 1956, when 20 000 women delivered a petition against racism to the government in Pretoria.YOU HAVE TAMPERED WITH THE WOMEN YOU HAVE STRUCK A ROCK AL2446_2605  by the Community Arts Project, Cape Town. This image refers to a slogan poster that became the rallying cry of women’s organizations. This image depicts women marching to government offices at the Union Buildings in Pretoria in 1956.


FEDERATION OF SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN : Western Cape Region Launched on 29 August 1987 	AL2446_1754 This poster honours leading women in the South African struggle at the launch of the Western Cape Region of FEDSAW. These women include Annie Silinga; Francis Baard; Albertina Sisulu; Lilian Ngoyi; Helen Joseph; Ray Alexander; Dora Tamana; Amina Cachalia; and Liz Mafekeng.TAKE YOUR HANDS OFF ME I'M A WORKER, NOT A TOY! : A WOMAN'S PLACE IS IN THE STRUGGLE AL2446_0782 produced by the Learn and Teach, Johannesburg. This poster celebrates the role of women in the struggle and challenges male exploitation of women.  DEC 18 CULTURAL DAY : STUDIO 45 AT HUHUDI HALL AL2446_1804 produced by the Huhudi Youth Organisation (HUYO) at the Screening Training Program (STP), Johannesburg. This poster advertises a day of cultural events that was hosted by the Huhudi organizations. OPEN OUR HOSPITAL NOW! AL2446_0194 This poster refers to a call for the opening of a hospital which stood empty after construction was completed, even though its facilities were urgently needed.

Protest would begin on a small scale via petitions, representations and press statements. When authorities ignored these representations, wider collective resources were mobilised in marches, stayaways, boycott action and so forth. Inevitably, such actions were met by harsh security force action, in turn triggering the familiar cycle of protest-repression-violence-counter-violence. The States of Emergency, first declared in 1985 and lasting effectively until mid-1989, were clearly aimed at destroying these grassroots social movements. Meetings and organisations were banned, activists detained and jailed, and army troops patrolled township streets.

As the cycle escalated, grassroots organisation gained a firmer hold, leading eventually — in a few townships — to a situation which was popularly perceived as one of 'dual power' between civic structures and state-run local government. Communities could only take control of their areas for short periods, while under continual attack by the state. However, there were many cases where situations of ‘dual power’ led to negotiations with local-level white business interests and local authorities achieving some redress for black communities.


FREE THE CHILDREN: the declaration of children's rights AL2446_1916 produced by the Free The Children Alliance, Johannesburg. This poster refers to an English version of the International Declaration of Children's Rights that was printed at a time when hundreds of children were in detentionDeklarasie van Kinder Regte AL2446_1366 produced by Molo Songololo, a children’s magazine, Cape Town. This poster depicts the Afrikaans version of the International Declaration of Children’s Rights, which was printed at a time when hundreds of children were in detention.


As well as challenging the state, grassroots social movements also helped to redefine social and cultural relationships within the community. New roles for women in public life emerged; the relationships between generations was continually contested, debated and reformulated: conceptions of citizenship emerged premised on participation rather than helpless passivity; streets and suburbs were renamed after popular symbols and leaders: solidarity against crime became a norm and outsiders seeking to co-opt allies and divide the community were vehemently opposed. In short, communities moved towards forging identities that opposed the logic, values and interests apartheid sought to impose on them. 

Upholding Christian and Civilized Standards ... AL2446_0095 produced by the Student Union for Christian Action (SUCA), Cape Town. This poster depicts the cruelty of a so-called Christian state. TRULY, I SAY TO YOU, AS YOU DID IT NOT TO ONE OF THE LEAST OF THESE, YOU DID IT NOT TO ME AL2446_2153 produced by the Western Province Council of Churches (WPCC), Cape Town in 1985. This poster refers to a challenge to Christians for their actions against fellow humans.Workers have a right to receive a LIVING WAGE 	AL2446_1043 produced by the Diakonia Church and Industry Programme, Durban. This poster relates to the right of workers to a living wage, which was supported by a quotation from the bible (James 5:4). FREE THE CHILDREN : CANDLELIGHT CAROL SERVICE : PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBITION AL2446_2242 produced by the Black Sash in 1986, Johannesburg. This poster depicts different religious groups uniting to protest against the detention of children under the State of Emergency.

Since the national detainees' hunger strike in February 1989, popular civic-type organisations have begun to recover from the near-mortal blows many suffered during the Emergency. Throughout the country, the various complex regional movements with their own histories, styles, personalities and issues have begun to re-emerge. This is testimony to the durability of civil society, which, if it continues to develop as it has to date, should provide a sound and robust foundation for a future democratic and just South Africa.d, out of this frequently violent confrontation between local governments and the communities emerged a commitment to local democracy that will help shape a future constitutional order.



Free the children invite you to a JAZZ EVENING AL2446_1717  produced by the Free the Children Alliance, Johannesburg. This image depicts a jazz evening that was advertised in c 1986 to raise awareness and financial support.ON TRIAL: ARCHBISHOP DENNIS HURLEY AL2446_0259 1985. The Catholic Church backs Archbishop Denis Hurley, on trial as a result of his anti-apartheid stance.MASS FOR DETAINEES : "I was in prison and you came to see me" 	AL2446_1853 1986. Catholic Church bears witness for Christians in detention.  Offset litho poster produced by the Catholic Diocese of Johannesburg

NATIONAL DETAINEES DAY : THEIR FREEDOM AND OUR FREEDOM CAN NOT BE SEPARATED 	AL2446_1021 produced by the Call of Islam at CAP, Cape Town. This poster depicts how South African Muslims identified with political detaineesNOW IS THE TIME! : WORK FOR LIBERATION NOW... : "YOUTH FACING THE CHALLENGE OF THE KAIROS" AL2446_0608 produced by the SACC Youth Division in 1985, Johannesburg. This poster refers to a call for Christian youth to join the struggle against apartheid.


SUPPORT NATIONAL PROTEST 7 - 8 pm LIGHTS-OFF AL2446_0437  produced by the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) at the Screen Training Project (STP), Johannesburg. This poster represents a call for community support of a lights-out campaign against repressionWE REMEMBER JUNE 16 : VICTORY IS CERTAIN AL2446_2579  his is a silkscreened poster in red on white issued by the Cape Youth Congress (CAYCO) for a Memorial Soccer Cup Tournament in 1987 in commemoration of June 16.CAYCO COSATU Demands: Support the Spekenam workers; Youth and workers unite fight for a living wage AL2446_4570 produced by the Cape Youth Congress (CAYCO). This poster depicts how CAYCO identifies with COSATU and striking workers from FAWU.


 VOICES FROM THE YOUTH : YOUTH UNITE! : ARM YOURSELVES WITH KNOWLEDGE FOR FREEDOM! 	AL2446_1220 This image depicts how the youth identified with the demands of the Freedom Charter. 1946: 70 000 MINERS STRIKE : TWELVE KILLED : 1986: VIVA NUM 100 YEARS OF EXPLOITATION : NATIONALISE THE MINES! UNDER WORKERS CONTROL AL2446_1537LET US SPEAK : INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN'S DAY : 1 JUNE 1986 AL2446_1654 This poster is silkscreened black, blue and red, produced by Molo Songololo at the Community Arts Project (CAP), Cape Town. This image depicts the Belville community celebrating International Children’s Day, which falls on 1 June.


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