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Exploring our past: 1860-1900
Life and war in the Union: 1901-1948
Life under apartheid: 1948-1960
Sharpeville and its legacy: 1960-1976
A generation of uprising: 1976-1982
Uniting against oppression: 1982-1985
Resistance in a state of emergency: 1985-1989
An uncertain transition: 1990-1994
Change in the new South Africa: 1994-2008
A challenge for democracy: 2008-present

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16 November 1860
342 Indians landed at Addington Beach in Durban as indentured labourers, and the "forefathers" of the modern South African Indian community. - Jethasha Singh, Grade 11, Tongaat Secondary School, Tongaat, KwaZulu-Natal [AL3285_A3.4.1.7] Unsung hero: Siva Naidoo
08 April 1873
Most of the ancestors of the Zanzibari community in KwaZulu-Natal arrived as freed slaves on the HMS Briton in 1873. Here, they were forced into indentured labour for the British Colony in Natal, working in the harbour and on sugar plantations. - Hanna Kim, Southlands Secondary School, Chatsworth, KwaZulu-Natal, 2009 [AL3285_A4.] 'The Zanzibari identity crisis and homeland disputes'
The Deutsche St Martini School was founded on Christian and humanistic principles and named after the St Martini Church. It was originally situated on Queen Victoria Street in Cape Town. - Yusra Kriel, Grade 10, Deutsche Schule, Cape Town, Western Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.9.1.2] 'History of my School: Deutsche Schule, Kapstadt'
Albert John Mvumbi Luthuli (d. July 21, 1967) was born near Bulawayo in Rhodesia - what is now Zimbabwe - to John and Mtonya Luthuli. In 1908 he moved with his family to the Groutville mission station in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. - N.P. Dangala, Free State, 2007 [AL3285_A2.2.1.3] 'The legacy of Nkosi Albert Luthuli 1898-1967'
07 September 1900
During the South African War (Anglo-Boer War), numerous concentration camps were created by the British for the thousands of white and black people left destitute after Lord Kitchener's Scorched Earth Policy destroyed approx. 30000 farm houses and over 40 towns. Berries described their treatment as "heartless, callous and barbaric." - Daphney Berries, Brent Park Secondary School, Kroonstad, Free State, 2009 [AL3285_A4.2.1.2] 'What is the story behind these graves: concentration camps 1899-1902'
The 'Prophet Isaiah Shembe' founded the Amanazaretha Baptist Church in 1911, breaking away from the newly formed African Baptist Church. In 1912, this 'prophet of the people' had a revelation and ascended the nearby Nhlangakasi Mountain where he remained for 12 days. - Sifiso Khumalo, Gauteng, 2009 [AL3285_A4.3.1.3] 'A spiritual place of worship: Nhlangakasi Mountain of the Shembe Church-a history of the Prophet Isaiah Shembe'
Karrikamma High School was founded in 1924, playing an important role in the local community's development. - Renathe Kalo, Karrikamma High School, Pixley Ka Seme, Northern Cape, 2009 [AL3285_A4.7.1.1] Die geskiedenis van my skool' (The history of my school)
05 February 1930
The Richtersveld Reserve was created through a certificate of reservation issued in terms of the Crown Lands Disposal Act of 1887. This reserved an area of 300 000 hectares, containing four villages, for use by the indigenous San community, as well as other groups of mixed racial descent. This deprived the Richtersveld community of their rights of occupation and movement. In February 2003 the community claimed customary land rights based on the Restitution of Land Rights Act 22 of 1994, - Richmond Sajini, Grade 9, Alexander Bay High School, Richtersveld Region, Namaqua District, Northern Cape [AL3285_ A3.7.1.1] 'The Richtersveld Land Claim'
Jordan High is the oldest township school in the Vaal Triangle, started in 1938 by Bishop RR Wright. - Boitumelo H. Moloi, Grade 8, Jordan High School, Evaton, Gauteng, 2009 [AL3285_A4.3.1.1] 'The history of my school: Jordan High School'
Forbes Grant was originally opened as a 'Native School'; the school's name became famous when it was razed to the ground in September 1976 in a violent student protest against Bantu education; Black Consciousness leader Steve Biko famously advised the students charged not to give evidence to the State. Most were charged with perjury, and two were sent to Robben Island for arson. The school was rebuilt and upgraded to a high school in 1986. - Siyabulela Mpetsheni, Grade 11, Forbes Grant High School, King William's Town, Eastern Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A4.1.1.4] 'The history of Forbes Grant High School from a 'native' school to a democratic high school'
Tlokwe Secondary School was originally founded by a few community churches as a Bantu school in the Wilem-Koperville area formerly known as Makweteng. - Neo Panane, Tlokwe Secondary School, Ikageng, 2009. [AL3285_A4.8.1.3] 'The history of my school: Tlokwe Secondary School'
23 October 1942
Lucas Majozi (d. 1969) received the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM), the highest award gained by an African soldier in the Second World War, for his role in the Second Battle of El Alamein. As a stretcher-bearer, he continued evacuating the wounded, despite enemy fire, and the fact that he had been severely wounded. He even carried the wounded back to the regimental first aid post on his back at times, remaining on duty until he collapsed from sheer exhaustion and loss of blood. Majozi returned to South Africa and served as a policeman until his death in 1969. Adoons Mongezi, Lere-le-Thato Secondary School, Xhariep District, Free State, 2008, [AL3285_A3.] 'Unsung heroes: Lucas Majozi, a black South African who participated in the Second World War, and was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM) for outstanding bravery and service'
17 December 1949
At the 1949 ANC national conference in Bloemfontein, Dr. J.S. Moroka was elected as the president of the ANC. He held this position until 1952. He was highly respected as a community leader and family doctor in his home town of Thaba Nchu. - Thinane Nthabiseng, Goronyane High School, Selosesha, Thaba Nchu, Free State [AL3285_A3.2.1.3] 'Why Dr. J.S. Moroka was respected and honoured in the community of Thaba Nchu before 1949'
17 December 1949
Oliver Tambo served on the Committee of the ANC Youth League which drew up the famous 'Programme of Action' later adopted at the ANC national conference in Bloemfontein. - Letitia Govender, Grade 11, Brakpan High School, Brakpan, Gauteng, 2008 [AL3285_A3.3.1.1] 'The life and times of O.R. Tambo: 1917-1993'
27 April 1950
The Group Areas Act No 41 of 1950 was created by the apartheid government of South Africa to assign racial groups to different residential and business sections in urban areas. This excluded non-whites from living in the most developed areas, which were reserved for whites. Many non whites thus had to commute far distances to their places of employment. The law was repealed 41 years later in June 1991. - Upasana Singh, Grade 11, Queensburgh Girls' High School, Malvern, KwaZulu-Natal, 2008 [AL3285_A3.4.1.3] 'The history of the Group Areas Act'
27 November 1950
The Battle of Namoha in Qwaqwa (Witzieshoek) involved a rebellion against the paramount Chief Charles Molefi, who had angered many of his followers by allowing to have their cattle branded. They would ultimately be sold, but this threatened many of the local traditional Basotho as they saw the cattle as their wealth. The rebellion took on political connotations, against the racist, oppressive laws of the apartheid regime. In the battle, local Chief Mopelinyana (who had held a meeting opposing the branding of cattle) was killed. Mathabo Mopeli helped organise the return of his body for burial in Qwaqwa. - Thabang Motaung, Grade 11, Mohato Senior Secondary School, Phuthaditjhaba, Limpopo, 2008 [AL3285_A3.2.1.7] 'The Battle of Namoha in Qwaqwa'
27 November 1950
Thabo Edwin Mofutsanyana, member of the ANC and SACP, played a leading role in the Battle of Namoha. He had also attended the All-Africa Convention in Bloemfontein in 1936, and made significant contributions to the ANC throughout his life. The Dihlabeng, Ntetwane/Setsoto, Phumelela and Maluti A Phofung municipalities were grouped under the name, Thabo Mofutsanyana District. - Pule Naledi, Akofang Intermediate School, Phuthaditjhaba, Free State, 2008 [AL3285_A3.2.1.1] 'Unsung hero: Thabo Mofutsanyana'
Unsung hero Marie de Coning recalled her memory of the Van Riebeeck Festival in Cape Town, where famous soprano Silesia Vessels sang the newly accepted official English translation of 'Die Stem', which was, at the time, the official anthem of South Africa. - Jessica Immelman, Grade 11, Crawford College - La Lucia, La Lucia, KwaZulu-Natal, 2008 [AL3285_A3.4.1.2] 'Unsung heroine: Marie de Coning'
17 April 1954
The Federation of South African Women (FEDSAW), a multi-racial body with the ANC Women's League as its largest component, was established at its founding conference to organise a united struggle against apartheid. This included the adoption of the Women's Charter. This set the framework for the women's anti-pass march which took place in Pretoria on 9 August, 1956 - Shivashni Pillay, Southlands Secondary School, Chatsworth, KwaZulu-Natal, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'Women's rights and apartheid'
07 January 1957
After the Public Utility Transport Corporation (PUTCO) tried to raise bus fare from 4 to 5 pennies, the bus boycott was initiated on this day, gaining momentum over the next few months as commuters outside of Alexandra Township joined the boycott; this included Soweto, Newclare, Atteridgeville, Moroka-Jabavu, Ga-Rankua and Mamelodi in the former Transvaal, as well as parts of the Eastern Cape. At its height, the boycott included 70 000 township residents. It lasted until June, 1957, when the original fare was restored. - Seithalti Nketle, Grade 11, Lehana Senior Secondary School, Mount Fletcher, Eastern Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.1.1.7] 'The Alexandra Bus Boycotts of 1957'
May 1959
At the ANC National Conference in May 1959, a decision was made to launch a nation-wide potato boycott in protest against the slave-like conditions on Eastern Transvaal potato farms. Pass offenders were handed over by the prisons to work on these farms. The potato boycott was a success, and the prison farm labour system was called off for a year. The boycott was called off at the end of June by the Congress Alliance, and replaced instead with a mass consumer boycott of all products from NP-aligned companies. - Fisiwe Ngwenya, Grade 10, Mzinoni High School, Bethal, Mpumalanga, 2008 [AL3285_A3.6.1.3] 'The Bethal potato boycott of 1959'
September 1959
The Bloemfontein branch of the Women's Association of the Methodist Church was inaugurated by Reverend Isaac Harley and his wife. Over the next few years, branches were opened in Kimberley, De Aar, Colesburg, Naaupoort, Paupan, Petrusville and Ronaldsvlei. - Daphney Berries, Grade 10, Brent Park Secondary School, Brent Park, Kroonstad, Free State, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'What did young women do for the community in Brent Park: the history of the Methodist Church of Southern Africa's Women's Association'
21 March 1960
Dlamini interviewed Moses on his memories of the Sharpeville Massacre, when "many residents of the Sharpeville Township were brutally murdered by the Apartheid police." - Andries Mfana Dlamini, Gauteng, 2007 (AL3285_A2.3.1.4_p4_6) 'The Sharpeville Massacre of 21 March 1960'
21 March 1960
Activists, including Puseletso Ziphora Maleho, Alias Mabusela, Gideon Tsolo and Mmaditha Tsolo were interviewed by learner, Nthatuoa, about their memories and involvement in the anti-pass campaign. The march was organised in the home of the Tsolos, who were members of the Pan Africanist Congress. - Nthatuoa Mabale, Iketsetseng Comprehensive Secondary School, Fezile Dabi, Free State, 2008 [AL3285_A3.2.1.4] '1960 Sharpeville Shooting'
21 March 1960
Robert Sobukwe had left the ANC in 1958, and inaugurated as President of the newly formed Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) in 1959. Sobukwe led the anti-pass campaign from Soweto, in the hopes of inspiring other men to defy the laws forcing them to carry pass books. With others, he was arrested at the Orlando Police Station. The shootings at Sharpeville Police Station were in response to the gathering of black South Africans participating in the anti-pass campaign. - Jesmine Dampies, Grade 11, Asherville Secondary School, Graaff-Reinet, Eastern Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.1.1.1] 'The life of Robert Sobukwe'
06 June 1960
On this day, the massacre of the aMampondo people took place at Ngquza Hill. This tragedy formed part of the social unrest plaguing the region, including the murder of Chief Jikindaba. The day had started out with a community meeting with between 3000-4000 participants, but heavy police and security patrol arrived, shooting at people, with 11 fatalities, and over 58 casualties. - Tutani Siyabulela Clammy, Sangoni Senior Secondary School, Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape, 2009 [AL3285_A4.1.1.4] 'The Case for 'Ngquza Hill' Heritage Site'
Capricorn High School was established in Polokwane. Despite the implementation of the Group Areas Act, the school accepted children of all races. - Tumelo Leseke, Capricorn High School, Polokwane, Mpumalanga, 2008 [AL3285_A3.5.1.2] 'History of my school: Capricorn High School'
The Second Women's March took place to protest against the formation of the South African Indian Council, which was seen as a tool of oppression of the apartheid government. There were nearly 1000 women. - Safiyah Ismail Vally, Pretoria High School for Girls, Tshwane, Gauteng, 2008 [AL3285_A3.3.1.4] 'Problems faced by Indians in the resistance movement of South Africa during apartheid'
16 May 1969
Official opening of Ntsonkotha school in Lady Frere. - Siphumelele Mbedla, Grade 10, Ntsonkotha Senior Secondary School, Lady Frere, Eastern Cape, 2009 [AL3285_A3.1.1.8] 'History of Nsonkotha Senior Secondary School'
Political journalist Chris Heard became the editor in chief of the Cape Times. During his journalistic career, he became engaged in raising political awareness. He was eventually arrested in 1985 for publishing an interview with 'banned' political activist, Oliver Tambo. - John Nicholas, Jan van Riebeeck High School, Cape Town, Western Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'Unsung hero: Chris Heard'
The Valencia Park Mosque mosque was first constructed in 1972 by the four Minties brothers to serve the Moslem Indian community in Valencia Park, Nelspruit - Micaela Ellison, Valencia Combined School, Nelspruit, 2009 [AL3285_A4.6.1.5] 'Significant religious place of worship: Valencia Park Mosque'
09 January 1973
Two thousand workers from Coronation Brick in KwaZulu-Natal went on strike, demanding higher wages. This strike led to more strike action that swept the country, resulting in the emergence of the modern trade union movement. - Nomfundo Matiwane, Grade 10, Potchefstroom Secondary School, Potchefstroom, North-West Province, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'The role of trade unions'
Professor Fatima Meer received her second banning order (the first was in 1952) for attempting to organise a mass rally with liberation leader Steve Biko. She was detained without trial for six months, spending a large part of it in solitary confinement. She recalled that when she was taken to Johannesburg she was placed in a bed so small that it "could not accomodate a bed." - Tristen Narainen, Grade 11, Apollo Secondary, Chatsworth, KwaZulu-Natal, 2008 [AL3285_A3.4.1.1] 'Unsung heroine: Professor Fatima Meer'
Cricketer Sedick Conrad was selected, along with Edward Habane of Soweto, to play against the Derrick Robins XI at Newslands, in South Africa's first ever mixed cricket match. The Cricket Council ignored this tour, which Sedick later described in an interview as "overwhelming" and "unreal." - Ameera Conrad, Grade 10, Wynberg Girls' High, Western Cape, 2009 [AL3285_A4.9.1.2] Sedick ''Dickie' Conrad: the unsung hero of Lansdowne'
Lunga Lefume, also known as Blacky, was one of the group of students known as the 'Dirty Dozen' who burnt down Forbes Grant Secondary School (see 1938) as a protest against apartheid; Lunga was arrested for this and held in solitary confinement for a year. - Simka Bongiwe, Grade 9, Bisho High School, Eastern Cape, 2007 [AL3285_A2.1.1.1] 'Lunga Lefume's experience during the 1976 uprising'
16 June 1976
Shonisani Asher Munyai from Venda lived in Pimville Zone 4 during the uprising. He was the secretary for the Pimville Zone 4 local committee, which supported students in their protest against Bantu education, although he did not know about the plans for an uprising. Khensani Vivian Magomani, Grade 12, Jim Chavani High School, Malamulele North-East, Vhembe, Limpopo, 2006 [AL3285_A1.5.1.2] 'An individual who contributed to the 1976 uprising: Mr Munyai'
16 June 1976
Motha interviewed Mrs. Siphiwe Ndzimande, who participated in the Soweto Uprising because she "needed to better (her) future and the lives of (her) children." - Nhlanhla Motha, Steelcrest High School, Middelburg, Mpumalanga, 2006 [AL3285_A1.6.1.2] 'Celebrating our heritage: Soweto Uprising'
16 June 1976
Fakude spoke to Mr. Raggy Shongwe, who participated in the uprising. He argued that the cause of unrest "could [have been] those other unrevealed forces, but as learners we were just concerned about Afrikaans being the medium of instruction." Veronica Nokubonga Fakude, Grade 10, Thembeka Senior Secondary School, Kanyamazane, Nelspruit, 2006 [AL3285_A1.6.1.3] 'More knowledge about the past: Soweto Uprising'
12 September 1977
Steve Biko, leader of the South African Students Organisation (SASO) and the Black People's Convention (BPC), as well as an ideological icon for the Black Consciousness movement, died in police custody after having been arrested on August 1, 1977. An inquest into the cause of his death took place between November 14 and December 2. - Faren Claire Potgieter, Oakdale Secondary School, Ennerdale Secondary School, Ennderdale, Johannesburg-South, Gauteng, 2007 [AL3285_A2.] 'Stephan Bantu Biko: 18 December 1946 - 12 September 1977'
November 1977
Belgian Roman Catholic Priest Frans Clearhoud arrived in the community of Tweespruit in 1977, where he remained, devoting his life to the community through his work, including educational development, painting and preaching. - Pieter Kola Modise, Grade 11, Tweespruit Combined School, Tweespruit, Mantsopa Municipality, Motheo district, Free State [AL3285_A3.2.1.8] 'Unsung hero: Priest Frans Clearhoud'
May 1978
Michael Jordaan, political activist and leader of the Black Consciousness Movement, was placed under a banning order, which forced him to return to the Coloured township of Brent Park in Kroonstad. He went into exile in 1979, lobbying for a trade and cultural boycott against South Africa. In 1995 he returned to Kroonstad. - Aletta Dhlamini, Grade 10, Brent Park Secondary School, Brent Park, Kroonstad, Free State, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'Unsung heroes: Michael Jordaan'
An application to open Dihlabakela High School was approved in 1980, even though there were no classrooms. The community and government both contributed towards construction. - Maebela Milwaukee, Grade 11, Dihlabakela High School, Greater Sekhukune, Limpopo, 2009 [AL3285_A4.5.1.1] 'History of my school: Dihlabakela High School'
12 September 1980
The 'Galeshewe 5' were charged with terrorism, arson and conspiracy to overthrow the government for their participation in the 1980 schools boycott. - Lindiwe Kers, Grade 8, St Joseph's CBC, Bloemfontein [AL3285_A4.2.1.3] 'Unsung heroes and heroines: the role of ordinary men and women in development'
30 January 1981
On this date in 1981, apartheid South African troops and hired mercenaries killed 12 freedom fighters in Matola, Mozambique. One of the 12 was Krishna Rabilal, a community activist from Merebank. - Sarveshnee Moodley, Grade 11, Southlands Secondary School, Chatsworth, KwaZulu-Natal, 2009 [AL3285_A4.] 'Truth revealed about the late apartheid activist Krishna Rabilal'
04 December 1982
The National Union of Mineworkers was formed on this day out of the Council of Unions of South Africa (CUSA). Its membership at the time of its launch was approximately 14 000, comprising four regions. With his comrades, Abraham Mabuza played a leading role in building up the trade union movement. By 1986, this membership had increased to 340 000. The NUM is the largest affiliate of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) - Nyiko Given Ngwatle, Grade 11, Metro Central Education District, Western Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] Unsung hero: Abraham Mabuza'
04 August 1983
11 people were killed when Ciskei police opened fire at protesters making their way to the train stations in a show of protest against the five cent increase in bus fare, as well as the notorious bantustan system, which was, for them, a "double oppression". - Mayekiso Nontle, J.F. Mati High School, Ciskei, Eastern Cape, 2007 [AL3285_A2.1.1.4] 'How local communities challenged apartheid (case study: 1983 Mdantsane bus boycott)'
20 August 1983
Thousands of people opposed to the proposal for the establishment of a Tricameral parliament met at Rocklands in Mitchell's Plain to witness the establishment of the United Democratic Front, made up of a number of community organisations and trade unions. The UDF created common ground for all those opposed to apartheid. - Yumnah Jackson, Bridgetown High Schol, Metro Central District, Western Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.9.1.1] 'How the formation of the community-based organisations that were affiliated to the UDF affected members of our community'
04 November 1983
A referendum was held for white South African voters to approve the proposed Tricameral parliamentary system, which would make provisions for power sharing between the white, coloured and Indian communities - it continued to exclude black voters. The 'yes' vote won the referendum by a large margin, and soon the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act of 1983 was passed, paving the way for a Tricameral parliament. - Christina Motshwane, Grade 10, Potchefstroom Secondary School, Potchefstroom, North-west Province, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'The role of community/civic organisations, especially those affiliated with the UDF'
When it started, Lere-La-Thuto High School did not have its own building, and was forced to share classrooms with nearby Zastron Public Primary School. In 1998, the first matric class achieved a 96.9% pass rate. - Ntombizandile Portia Dangala, Lere-le-Thuto High School, Xhariep District, Free State, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'The history of my school - Lere-La-Thuto High School'
This year is remembered by the Mzinoni Township community as the 'year of stagnation' - owing to political instability, learners of Mzinoni High School were unable to sit for examinations; those who did had their results withheld. Matric learners were not allowed to register the following year, even though they had not completed their studies. The school experienced tragedy when learner Nomoya Christine Masilela became the first victim of police during the school boycotts led by 'Papa' Nhlapho. - Fisiwe Ngwenya, Grade 11, Mzinoni High School, Mzinoni Township, Mpumalanga, 2009 [AL3285_A4.6.1.3] 'The history of my school - Mzinoni High School'
August 1985
Political protest against Bantu education by students at Malcomess High School in the Dukathole Township near Aliwal North resulted in the destruction of property, including a beer hall and several council members' houses. The first victim was student activist, Mzingisi Biliso; in the ensuing violence another 24 people were shot dead by security forces. - Grade 11 learners, Egqili Secondary School, Aliwal North, Eastern Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.1.1.3] 'The Aliwal North Massacre of 1985'
17 September 1985
After the State of Emergency was declared in 1985, schools were closed. At Alexander Sinton High School, the teachers, led by progressive educator Basil Swart, decided to re-open their school. Students, teachers and parents gathered outside the school in the morning. Before they could disperse, security police blockaded the school entrance and began arresting the demonstrators. Members of the Athlone community showed their support by surrounding the school with their cars, locking the police on the school property. Basil Swart later presented the events of this day to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) as a way of showing "a teacher's point of view" about the struggle for equal education. - Sasha-Lee Oliphant, Grade 10, Garlandale High School, Western Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.9.1.3] 'Unsung hero: Basil Swart'
03 March 1986
The Gugulethu Seven was a group of young Umkonto we Sizwe (MK) anti-apartheid activists from the Cape township of Gugulethu who were assassinated by the Vlakplaas- based security forces in an early morning ambush. - Khanyisa Tutuka, Grade 11, Ikamvalethu High School, Langa, Western Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'Unsung heroes: the Gugulethu Seven'
11 March 1986
According to the Young Communist League, this was a "decisive moment in the history of the lowveld (Ehlanzeni), when police opened fire at students participating in mass action against apartheid. Nompumelelo Zwane, Grade 9, KaBokweni Secondary School, Mpumalanga, 2009 [AL3285_A4.6.1.1] 23rd Anniversary of the KaBokweni Massacre (1986)
11 March 1986
Community members had gathered outside the Kabokweni Magistrate Court in support of a group of political activists arrested on charges of public violence after skirmishes with police during the funeral of Connie Sibiya, who had been run over by an army bus. At least two were killed; many more were injured. Sibongile, one of the victims of the Kabokweni Massacre, was blinded after being shot at five times in the face by a policeman while trying to escape rioting. According to Mr. Magagula, "a lot of children were paralyzed and some were shot dead." - Gugu Pearl April, Grade 9, Mpumalanga, 2009 [AL3285_A4.6.1.6] 'Lowveld Massacre/Kabokweni Massacre'
08 June 1988
Political activist Lenny Naidu had been in exile since 1985 with his MK unit; he received military training for over a year at Camp Pango in Angola. In June 1988 he attempted to infiltrate South Africa through the Piet Retief border. He was spotted and gunned down by the South African police along with three female comrades. - Elicia Naidoo, Southlands Secondary School, Chatsworth, KwaZulu-Natal, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'Unsung hero: Lenny Naidu'
27 June 1988
The Battle of Cuito Cuanavale took place in south-eastern Angola, fought between the South African Defence Force (SADF), the Cuban army and the Angolan forces. Cuban forces moved into Angola to stop the SADF, bombing the Calueque hydro-electric plant. Soon after this bloody battle was fought, the South Africans withdrew from Angola, and a peace accord was agreed upon. This was the largest battle fought in Africa since World War II. - Nukhtar Khan, Potchefstroom Secondary School, North-West Province, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'Armed struggle in Africa'
05 September 1990
Members of the newly formed (1989) Ennerdale Youth Unity (EYU) student representative council (SRC) from Fred Norman Secondary School held their first stay-away, involving both workers and students from the community.This initiated community protests and stayaways which would continue until 2005, in the form of the Ennerdale Civic Association (ESCA) and later as the Ennerdale branch of the South African National Civic Organisation (SANCO). - Roseline Jacobs, Grade 10, Oakdale Secondary School, Ennerdale, Johannesburg-South, Gauteng, 2007 [AL3285_A2.] 'Boycotts that took place in Ennerdale between the late 1980s and mid 2000s'
20 December 1991
The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) provided an opportunity for the government and liberation movements to negotiate how South African democracy would unfold. DZJ Mtebule served on the delegation for the Gazankulu homeland government. He served on the Task team No 5 with people like Zola Skweyiya. - Mbulaheni Surprise, Grade 11, Bankuna High School, Nkowankowa Circuit, Mopani District, Limpopo Province, 2008 [AL3285_A3.5.1.1] Unsung hero: DZJ Mtebule
Kgaba Secondary School in the Waterberg was established to accommodate the growing educational needs of the district. - Lorraine Mabena, Kgaba Secondary School, Waterberg, Limpopo, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'History of my school: Kgaba Secondary School'
Ikamvalethu Secondary School was originally established as a Finishing school with the sole aim of accomodating matric failures, giving a second chance to many who were forced by circumstances, both personal and political, to forfeit their education. - Xolelwa Mthikrakra, Grade 11, Ikamvalethu Secondary School, Langa, Western Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'History of my school: Ikamvalethu Secondary School'
21 October 1993
After winning the Burundi election on this day, the Hutu presidential candidate, Melchior Ndadaye, was assasinated by the Tutsi dominated army. This resulted in a backlash from Hutus who killed approx. 25000 Tutsis; the Tutsis responded in kind, killing almost the same number of Hutus. Thousands were displaced, fleeing the country as refugees. Many sought asylum in South Africa. Ideline Akimana, Bridgetown High School, Cape Town, Western Cape, 2009 [AL3285_A4.9.1.1] 'The plight of the Burundian refugees in South Africa: a case study'
Establishment of Hlamandana Secondary School in Embobeni Location, named after local Chief Hlamandana. - Nwabisa Mbanjwa, Hlamandana Senior Secondary School, Bizana, Eastern Cape, 2009 [AL3285_A4.1.1.2] 'History of my school: Hlamandana Senior Secondary School'
Featured Items
The Nisaa Institute for Women's Development was founded by activists seeking to challenge the problem of violence against women. - Chandni Laja, Grade 11, Azara Secondary School, Lenasia, Gauteng, 2006 [AL3285_A1.3.1.1] 'Analysis of women's development''
Featured Items
Matatiele town had been allocated to the KwaZulu-Natal province in 1976, with the surrounding villages being under the Eastern Cape province, but after 1994 the surrounding community took action, opposing unequal services delivered to the largely white community in Matatiele. - Jafta Baphumelele, Hardenberg Junior Secondary School, Matatiele, Eastern Cape, 2007 [AL3285_A2.1.1.2] 'Local struggle in the cross border issue of Matatiele town'
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Establishment of Sakhululeka High School. - Christian Bernard, Grade 11, Sakhululeka High School, Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape, 2009; Mani Nwabisa, Grade 11, Sakhululeka High School, Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape, 2009 [AL3285_A3.] 'History my school: Sakhululeka High School'
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27 April 1994
During South Africa's first democratic national election, Ennerdale resident and PAC member Benny Alexander changed his name to 'Khoisan X' as a political statement about the flawed nature of racialized identity. - Gabriela Balie, Oakdale Secondary School, Ennerdale, Gauteng, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'Unsung hero: Benny Alexander aka Khoisan X'
Cyrian Babina Mokoena opened the Bopanang Stimulation Centre in Phuthaditjhaba, a home for mentally handicapped children, which, by 2008, catered for 62 children. - Tebello Molelekoa, Akofang Intermediate School, Phuthaditjhaba, Free State, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'Unsung heroine: Mrs Cyrian Babina Mokoena'
The A Re Thusaneng Youth Group was started by Granny Mello as a feeding scheme, attracting many young volunteers looking for a way to contribute to their community, as well as something to "keep them busy." - Cynthia Mpete, Grade 11, Lesedi Secondary School, Mamelodi, Silverton (Pretoria), 2007 [AL3285_A2.] 'Young people who have contributed to our communities and society: A Re Thusaneng Youth Group'
When her brother died after contracting the virus, Pheladi Saraphina Mogale began working as a caregiver for people living with HIV/AIDS. She initiated the HIV/AIDS awareness project called Barakah, named after her brother. She is supported by the University of Pretoria. - Thabiso Senamela, Lesedi Secondary School, Vosloorus, Gauteng, 2008 [AL3285_A3.3.1.2] 'Unsung heroine: Pheladi Saraphina Mogale'
The Ikhwezi Lomso Child and Family Welfare Society has operated in Amaqwathi Tribal Authority and its surrounding areas since 2000, registered as a non profit organisation with the Department of Social Development. Its overall aims include producing trained community caregivers, to provide care to all who need it in the 16 administrative areas served, to implement and maintain food security schemes for schools, the elderly, and needy, and persons living with HIV/AIDS. - Mdodana Lebohang Nombelu, Grade 10, St Johns College, Umtata, Eastern Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.1.1.10] 'Unsung heroes: Dr. Yose-Xasa of the Ikhwezi Lomso Child and Family Welfare Society'
16 June 2002
The Hector Pieterson Memorial and Museum was opened on Youth Day in Orlando West to honour Pieterson and all those who died in the 1976 Uprising, representing 'national unity and reconciliation in post-1994 democratic South Africa'. - Michael Munyai, Grade 11, Saulridge High School, Tshwane South, 2009 [AL3285_A4.3.1.2] 'Hector Pieterson Memorial and Museum: heritage site representing post-1994 democratic South Africa'
09 April 2005
Marthinus van Schalkwyk, leader of the New National Party (NNP) from its inception in 1997 (out of the National Party), officially became a member of the ruling African National Congress when he merged the NNP into the ANC. This was seen as a way of "finally ending the division of the South African soul." - Christiaan van Schalkwyk, Grade 8, Metro Central Education District, Western Cape, 2008 [AL3285_A3.] 'Unsung hero: Marthinus van Schalkwyk'
Regina Sibanyoni served as a representative for the poor community in Donkerhoek when the landowner threatened eviction. She went through the local ANC office, gave testimony in court and achieved a "sweet victory for the community." -Eva Sibanyoni, Grade 10, Lesedi Secondary School, Mamelodi, Silverton (Pretoria), Gauteng, 2007 [AL3285_A2.] 'Our unsung heroes - the life of a community leader and the different she has made to our community: Regina Sibanyoni'
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18 May 2008
On this day, xenophobic attacks against foreigners in South Africa broke out. The violent undercurrent which had been "creeping silently throughout the country' exploded when a Mozambiquan man was burnt alive at the Ramaphosa Informal Settlement in Reiger Park on Gauteng's East Rand. For several months after this, thousands of foreign nationals were displaced, creating an unprecedented refugee problem throughout the country. - Jongilanga Luntukazi, Grade 11, Dalindyebo High School, Mthata, Eastern Cape, 2009 [AL3285_A4.1.1.1] 'Xenophobic attacks in South Africa: Going Forward'
18 May 2008
The learner reflected that all people should be treated equally "whether [or not] you are coming from another country because we are all equal in the eyes of the law" - Lebata Lereng, Grade 10, Lehana Senior Secondary School, Mount Fletcher, Eastern Cape, 2009 [AL3285_A4.1.1.3] 'Investigate the plight of the refugees and suggest how they should be treated in order to promote the culture of human rights'
18 May 2008
Mohlala challenges xenophobia in South Africa, which culminated in the riots of May 2008, by asking "why we [are] beating them up, chasing them away and making life more difficult [for] them?" - Rose Mohlala, Makgwahleng Secondary School, Mopani, Limpopo, 2009 [AL3285_A4.5.1.2] 'The refugees in South Africa'
18 May 2008
Zamile wanted to "know the truth from the people themselves and also investigate why they left their countries…" - Mabuza Zamile, Sibusiswe High School, Matsulu, Mpumalanga, 2009 [AL3285_A4.6.1.4] 'Refugees in South Africa'
18 May 2008
Assegai interviewed local MEC Patrick Mabilo, who defended refugees in the Northern Cape, arguing that people there were "less violent" and also because there were less refugees in the Northern Cape - most went to big cities in Gauteng. - Veronique Assegai, Grade 11, Wrenchville High School, Northern Cape, 2009 [AL3285_A4.7.1.3] 'Refugees in South Africa'
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