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Freedom of Movement and Residence

Every citizen has the right to live anywhere in South Africa, to have a passport, and to enter and leave the country.


The right to movement and residence is a key aspect of respecting people's freedom. In apartheid South Africa, this right was systematically violated by the apartheid government who, in pursuit of racist policies, heavily restricted the free movement of black citizens to and from urban areas through pass laws.

Because this right includes the right to a passport, it is particularly important today for refugees in our country. Refugeeism is monitored by an agreement between South Africa and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Numerous non-governmental organisations serve as watchdogs, ensuring this agreement. This includes the African Society for Migration and Society  and the Forced Migration Studies Program at Wits University. The Forced Migration Studies Program Collection is held at SAHA.  



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