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Further Reading


Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report, Volume 4, Truth and Reconciliation Commission/Department of Justice, October, 1998

Conscientious Objection, Occasional Paper No. 8 (Second Edition), Centre for Intergroup Studies, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 1989

War and Conscience in South Africa: the churches and conscientious objection, Catholic Institute for International Relations / Pax Christi, Russell Press, 1982

Blake, C. Troepie: From call-up to camps / Troepie: van blougat tot bosoupa. Zebra Press, 2009.

Cawthra, G. Brutal Force: the Apartheid war machine. International Defence and Aid Fund for South Africa and Committee on South African War Resistance (COSAWR), 1986

Cock, J. and Nathan, L. (eds.) War & society: The militarisation of South Africa. David Philip, Cape Town, South Africa, 1989

Frederickse, J. South Africa: A different kind of war, Beacon Press, Boston, 1986

Holt, C. At thy call we did not falter, Zebra Press, Cape Town, 2005

Nathan, L. The Changing of the Guard: Armed Forces and Defence Policy in a Democratic South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, 1994

Nathan, L. Out of Step: War Resistance in South Africa, Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1990

Seidman, J. Red on black: the story of the South African poster movement, STE Publishers and South African History Archive (SAHA), Johannesburg, 2007

Stiff, P. Warfare by other means: South Africa in the 1980s and 1990s, Galago, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2001

Thompson, J.H. An unpopular war - from afkak to bosbefok: Voices of South African National Servicemen, Zebra Press, Cape Town, 2006

Toms, I. 'Ivan Toms is a fairy? The South Africa defence force, the end conscription campaign and me.' In Defiant desire, ed. M. Gevisser and E. Cameron, Raven Press, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1994

Yeats, Charles. Prisoner of conscience, Rider Books, Random House, London, 2005

Other Published Sources

Mannekrag en Verdediging-Kritiese Vraagpunte/Manpower and Defence - Crucial Issues, National Development and Management Foundation of South Africa, 1978

Graaf, Michael (ed.), Hawks and Doves - the Pro- and Anti-Conscription Press in South Africa, Contemporary Cultural Studies Unit, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa 1988.


Unpublished Sources

Proceedings of Centre for Intergroup Studies workshop on 'Alternative National Service,' 30 - 31 October, 1989

Proceedings of Institute for Defence Policy conference 'Taking the SA Army into the Future', 15 November, 1993



Callister, G. Compliance, compulsion and contest: conscription in South Africa, 1952 - 1992 Masters in Arts, University of Stellenbosch, 2007

Connors, Judith Patricia. Empowering Alternatives: a history of the Conscientious Objector's Support Group's challenge to military service in South Africa, M Com, Conflict Resolution and Peace Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, October, 2007

Draper, C. Psychological Experiences of Military Conscription in South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s, Unpublished Honours Paper, Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, 1999

O'Leary, Derrick. The Border between Sanity and Insanity': effects of the Border War on white South African society, Unpublished Honours thesis, Department of History, University of the Witwatersrand, 2007

Phillips, M. The End Conscription Campaign: 1983-1988: A Study of White Extra-parliamentary Opposition to Apartheid, Masters in Arts, Department of History, University of South Africa, 2002


SAHA Archival Collections

> AL2446 :: The SAHA Poster Collection

> AL2457 :: The Original SAHA Collection

> AL2878 :: The Freedom of Information Programme (FOIP) Collection

> AL2540 :: The SAHA Ephemera Collection

> AL2547 :: The SAHA Original Photograph Collection

Other South African archives with ECC-related collections

Historical Papers, University of the Witwatersrand

AG1977 - End Conscription Campaign (ECC) Collection

Manuscripts & Archives, University of Cape Town Libraries

BC1027 - The Conscription Advice Service Papers

BC1005 - COSAWR Collection

BC1051 - The Dot Cleminshaw Papers

BC1102 - End Conscription Campaign


Digital repositories

Digital Innovation South Africa (DISA)


Crossing the Border

Eat My Call Up

Marching Orders

Property of the State

The Ribbon

Too Far Apart

Whites Against Apartheid

Please consult SAHA's Audiovisual Audit Report: The South African Liberation Struggle for more information about these ECC-related films.

Newspaper articles


Muston, Leon. 'Agony of refusing to serve in apartheid army' (review), The Weekender, 19 November, 2009

Oelofse, Neil.'Real anti-conscription heroes deserved much more credit' (interview with Charles Bester), Weekend Post, 4 November, 2009

Markman, Ivor. 'Banning just added fuel to runaway fire of no-shows for national call-up', Weekend Post, 4 November, 2009

Presence, C. 'End Conscription Campaign gets Motlanthe's praise', Eye Witness News, 2 November, 2009

Majavu, Anna. 'Education system worse than under apartheid,' Sowetan, 2 November, 2009

Trovato, Ben. The End Conscription campaign turns 25', Times Live, 1 November, 2009

Cohen, Lauren. 'Draft resisters were heroes', Times Live, 1 November, 2009

Motlanthe, Kgalema. ECC: Motlanthe's speech, Times Live, 1 November, 2009

Lester, Matthew. 'Another sort of national service,' Times Live, 31 October, 2009

Kamaldien, Yazeed. 'Old war objectors celebrate', Mail & Guardian, 30 October, 2009

Dunbar-Curran, Terri. '25 years of ECC', Tonight, October 30, 2009

Cherry, Janet. 'End Conscription Campaign celebrates 25th anniversary', Weekend Post, 24 October, 2009

Evans, Gavin. 'Calling up old memories', Mail & Guardian, 23 October, 2009

ECC celebrates 25 years, Dispatch Online, 21 October, 2009

Bleby, Michael. 'The End Conscription Campaign and the power of refusal', Business Day, 30 September, 2009

Leonard, Charles. 'Don't underestimate the power of electric guitar', Business Day, 30 September, 2009


Ancer, Jonathan. 'Hell no, we won't go', Mail & Guardian, 28 August, 2008


Barron, Chris. 'Nan Cross: supported men resisting apartheid conscription', Sunday Times, 22 July, 2007


Ritchie, Kevin. 'Soldiers relive apartheid war in surge of writing', Saturday Weekend Argus, 14 October, 2006


Mathers, Kathryn. 'The home front: a white woman against apartheid and conscription,' Peace News, No. 2447, June - August 2002


Granelli, Marco. 'Conscription has many up in arms', Pretoria News, 20 September, 2000


Conscripts tell Truth Commission about suffering, SAPA, 23 July, 1997



Merrett, Christopher. 'Vivid, chilling accounts of militarism', Weekly Mail & Guardian, 11 August, 1994

'Reprieve for soldiers who don't heed call-up', Cape Times, 11 August, 1994

'CF call-ups to go on,' Citizen, 30 July, 1994

Brummer, Stefaans. 'Whites-only call-up under fire', Weekly Mail & Guardian, 28 July, 1994

Sawyer, Clive. 'Move soon to abolish call-ups, says ECC', Argus, 27 July, 1994

Sparks, Michael. 'Call-up creates discord', The Star, 25 July, 1994

Gallagher, Christina. 'The hard choices of SA's conscript objectors', Saturday Weekend Argus, 22 July, 1994

'Call-up defaulters may be prosecuted', The Star, 13 May, 1994

Yutar, David. 'No-show troopies may face prosecution', Argus, 12 May, 1994



Laufer, Stephen. 'The battle for South Africa's war-machine', Mail & Guardian, 29 October, 1993

'3 to be prosecuted for refusing call-up', Citizen, 18 October, 1993

King, Brian. 'ECC to close shop', Sunday Star, 29 August, 1993

'It's the end of the End Conscription Campaign', Sunday Tribune, 29 August, 1993

Laufer, Stephen. 'Draft ends when commando go', Mail & Guardian, 27 August, 1993

'Government scraps the military call-up service', Business Day, 25 August, 1993

De Villiers, Chris. 'ECC has moved on with changing South Africa,' The Star, 21 July 1993

'Work of ECC will continue', The Star, 19 July, 1993

Templeton, Brendan, 'ECC to host fun farewell festivities', The Star, 16 July, 1993

'July intake have until Sat to report', The Citizen, 8 July, 1993

'Public Notice re: John Downie & John Kelly', Citizen, 30 April, 1993

Bothma, Stephane. '4 refuse to go to camp', Business Day, 30 April, 1993

'SADF: homosexuals are 'immoral, deviant'', Natal Witness, 25 March, 1993

'ECC accuses Louw of confusing the public', Citizen, 6 February, 1993

Johnson, Anthony. 'Call-up 'to be phased out'', Cape Times, 3 February, 1993

Stuart, Brian. 'No more white call-ups likely', The Citizen, 3 February, 1993

Rudden, Roy. 'Hell no, I won't go, says Bok', Sunday Times, 24 January, 1993

Oosterbroek, Monica. 'SADF claims about 1993 call-up doubted', The Star, 19 January, 1993

Wilkinson, Bronwyn. '4000 failed to heed call-up, says ECC', The Star, 13 January, 1993

Granelli, Marco, 'Only 30 percent will report: ECC', Pretoria News, 11 January, 1993

'Don't bait', Natal Mercury, 8 January, 1993

'SADF warns conscripts to report for duty', Citizen, 4 January, 1993

'Conscripts urged to ignore call-up', Natal Mercury, 4 January, 1993



Bruce, David. 'Racist attitudes retained', Daily News, 21 December, 1992

van Hees, Bert. 'Conscript 'dodgers' face prosecution', Citizen, 15 December, 1992

'Kat among the pigeons', Weekly Mail, 11 December, 1992

'SADF drive 'step in the right direction'', Daily News, 10 December, 1992

Grange, Helen. 'Continued whites-only call-up blasted', The Star, 13 November, 1992

De Villiers, Chris. 'Call up threat is an outrage', Sunday Times, 8 November, 1992

De Villiers, Chris. ''Rhodesia option'' feared', The Star, 5 November, 1992

Sawyer, Clive. 'Please don't go-ECC on the attack', Weekend Argus, 25 October, 1992

Sawyer, Clive. 'ECC warns on continued conscription of whites', Argus, 13 July, 1992

'Defy call-up, ANC urges whites', The Star, 9 July, 1992

'ECC call to oppose entrenching call-up', Pretoria News, 2 April, 1992

Evans, Gavin. 'To serve or not to serve? It's a vexing question', Weekly Mail, 2 April, 1992

'ECC pleased with court ruling', Citizen, 28 March, 1992

Smuts, Susan. 'It's no crime to dodge the army', The Star, 28 March, 1992

Bothma, Stephane. 'SADF reinstates 60-day service', Business Day, 23 March, 1992



Nelan, Bruce. W.South Africa: Hell no, they don't want to go, Time magazine, 5 September, 1988

Malan. 'ECC at loggerheads over call-up,' 6 August 1988

'Soon there may be two', Weekly Mail, 7 July, 1988

Battersby, J.D. 'More whites in South Africa resisting the draft', New York Times, 28 March, 1988



Parks, Michael. 'Criticism rises in S.Africa as Angola casualties climb', Los Angeles Times, 14 November, 1987

Steenkamp, W. 'Objectors do have choices' Cape Times, 12 August, 1987



'Pretoria strikes many fronts in stepped-up crackdown', Philadelphia Inquirer, 11 December, 1986

'Prisoners in our minds - New curbs in S. Africa', Los Angeles Times, 4 December, 1986

'South Africa cracks down on white anti-draft group', Toronto Star, 4 December, 1986

'Sweet Protest', Chicago Tribune, 9 October, 1986

Evans, Gavin. 'White, and hiding, in S. Africa', Newsday, (Long Island, N.Y.), 29 September, 1986

'Crackdown in South Africa - State of emergency declared', Chicago Tribune, 13 June, 1986

Parks, Michael. 'S. Africa declares emergency rule; 1200 rounded up; Botha gives nearly unlimited power to police to deal with growing strife', Los Angeles Times, 13 June, 1986

Walt, Vivienne, 'Draft-dodging reported rising in S. Africa', Newsday, (Long Island, N.Y.) 13 May, 1986



'Army pamphlets propaganda-ECC, residents', Argus, 24 October, 1985

'Security raid on pacifist groups', Natal Mercury, 9 October, 1985

'Leader of ECC freed from jail', Citizen, 25 September, 1985

'ECC used by ANC to further aims - Vlok', Citizen, 10 September, 1985

'Direct attack on our campaign', Citizen, 10 September, 1985

'SADF hears complaint on call-up', Cape Times, 16 August, 1985

'Unrest: ECC planning 'troops out' campaign', Argus, 15 August, 1985

Nathan, Laurie. 'Thousands face agonising choice', Natal Mercury, 14 July, 1985

'Church and army', Star, 12 July, 1985

'Detention 'harrowing and disrupting' - PE woman', Herald, 5 July, 1985

'ECC drive on call-up very naïve - Slabbert' The Star, 2 June, 1985



Smuts, Ray. 'Arrest threat to tennis star', Sunday Times, 14 September, 1980

Gosling, Melanie. 'Conscientious Objector seeks asylum', Natal Mercury, 18 August, 1980

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